Housing in India

Building a house in India? See sample house plans or contact me to design a new house for you!
DON’T contact me if you are not willing to PAY my service. India provide the WORST customers!

The Indian reality… obscene wealth & grinding poverty
Point mouse cursor on photos to see place name
South Mumbai rich vs poor South Mumbai rich vs poor

From a neutral or foreign point of view, Indian subcontinent may be one of the worst places to live (especially for women) and one of the most dangerous places to travel as tourist. This is valid for all India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, Sri Lanka, Nepal, etc.

The economy of India can be compared with Philippines and other south-east Asian countries, but even poorer according GDP per capita, corrupt government (especially in Pakistan), high crime rate and even more poverty (especially in India). The economy is booming since 2005, but only few cities offer good jobs thus most people do not benefit from this. Income inequality doubled last 20 years, but surprisingly it is still more equality than in United States. The economy felt into uncertainty in 2013.

Real estate industry is booming. in India. Unfortunately, only in housing for middle class. There is major deficit of good housing affordable for working class.

Most people who contacted me for architecture services say “We are poor… can’t afford your prices“, but occasionally I get also messages “hey, don’t call India poor, we are fast developing country“, especially from people in IT industry. There are few areas in rapid development, but if you leave Delhi metropolitan area, you will see the real India… widespread poverty, slums everywhere, non-paved roads, animals wandering around city, etc. Half of population live without electricity and water. Moreover there is a psychological problem to pay as little is possible for any service, even free if possible.

What really makes India bad to live in, is the lack of human rights, crime against women (violence, rape, forced marriages, etc), outdated infrastructure, chaotic traffic due to easy driving tests, overcrowded trains, etc.

Surprisingly, the Indians which I met during running this website, told me that are proud to live in India, or that they have a great culture (unlike people from Philippines who most hate their country). Maybe the crimes are part of their great culture so this is why Indians are proud of their country? Maybe they do not travel out of country to see how a proper world looks like (as comparison, 10% of Philippines population is working overseas).

Indian architecture

Mumbai is the biggest city in India, home for 14 million people, a city of contrasts featuring a very rich area in the south but also Dharavi, largest slum in the world. Construction of high-rise condominiums boomed in 2008. 61-floor The Imperial is the tallest building in India since 2010, 117-floor World One was scheduled to be completed in 2016, but as 2017 is still under construction. According Skyscrapers Database, out of 342 buildings over 100 meters in India, 260 are located in Mumbai (as January 2016, including under construction and planned buildings).

Antilia, the tallest private house in the world, was 4th tallest building in India at the time of completion in 2010. 27-storey, 173 meters tall skyscraper owned by a single family, probably most expensive residence in the world, valued at over $1 billion, is located in South Mumbai… in the same neighborhood with the slums shown the photo at top of this article. It is also a subject to mockery, called the ugliest skyscraper in the world.

Mumbai contrasts: Dharavi slum vs Antilla single-family skyscraper
(on background: the twin Imperial Towers, tallest buildings in India between 2010-2016)Dharavi slums Antilla

New Delhi, the capital of India, feature most beautiful architecture and highest standards of living, having many bungalows and no slums, but this paradise is just for 250.000 people. Delhi suburb, Noida, may be the best city in India, thanks to numerous IT companies who made headquarters there, making the city some kind of Silicon Valley.

Chandigarh, a medium city with 1 million people, is one of best cities to live and most beautiful city in India when viewed from satellite photos, a master planned city since 1960s with wide avenues in a grid layout, it feature large house plots that attract affluent people. Other planned cities include Durgarpur, New Delhi, Gurgaon, Noida.

Other cities where significant part of population enjoy high standards of living, and good jobs can be easily found, are Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Pune. The list can continue, but the living conditions deteriorates once you look to smaller cities.

Despite of continuous migration to urban areas, 69% of India population of 1.2 billion people still live in rural areas (2011 census), where standards of living are much lower than in cities and formal employment is almost non-existent.

According Times of India, average house size in India is 494 sq ft / 103 sq ft per person in rural areas and 504 sq ft / 117 sq ft per person in urban areas. “In fact, a majority of Indians have per capita space equivalent to or less than a 10 feet x 10 feet room for their living, sleeping, cooking, washing and toilet needs“. The space per person dropped over last decades due to rising population and low construction ratio.

New Delhi architecture, the BEST of India… but still too much concrete and gray. Plus an interesting-shaped block
Delhi block Delhi block

India also experience a booming automotive industry, production increased from 800.000 in year 2000 to over 4 million in year 2012 (see automobile production – source: OICA). India currently produce some of the cheapest cars of the world. India is also known for having the easiest driving school test in the world, one of worst drivers, because any idiot can go on roads, but the roads… where they are? From satellite photos you can see that the few paved roads existing are already jammed even with the current low number of cars (41 cars per 1000 people as 2011, according Wikipedia), many intersections are uncontrolled and traffic accidents happen daily.

Study of Indian housing

Housing in India is dominated by low-rise apartment buildings, houses with high land coverage (back-to-back terraced-like houses) and slums. Some houses are inner lots, access being via 1.5-meter wide passages under other houses, and ventilated only by small airwells). All them being mostly gray and ugly… Indian cities are ugly compared with cities of Malaysia, Thailand, Latin America, etc, even uglier than the cities of Philippines, a country with similar poverty level.

Most houses are being built over many years by multiple family generations, adding extra floors over time, with no architect and engineers. Multi-generation families, 10+ people sharing same house is common, each floor belonging to another branch of family, or even worse, each family branch having just one room.

India and surrounding countries are known for poor construction standards. YouTube show numerous buildings collapsing… even without any earthquake. Park View Horizon, one of the few high-rise and luxurious buildings in Nepal, was advertised as “earthquake resistant towers” but suffered severe damage at the May 2015 earthquake (video), although it resisted from collapse to save the life of residents. I am confused: was it completed and occupied at the time of earthquake?

During my studies for architecture, I search apartment floor plans on Google Images, I frequently see results from India, and I am sick of them… India have the worst apartment floor plans in the world. Most common apartment type is 3 bedrooms plus separate living and dining, but the floor plan layout lacks any logic, bedrooms are spread over corners of apartment, some rooms have view to outside, other rooms have view to a courtyard sized like 2×3 meters. If this was not bad enough, identical apartment layouts are repeated in same direction instead of mirroring as would be normal. This make some rooms to have view into neighbor rooms, to blank walls, etc. There are apartments with NO view at all, all rooms facing to courtyards (I have showed few Indian floorplans to several friends, architects and students from around the world, and most of them commented “what kind of idiot architect have designed this!!??”)

In 2014 (after 2 years since originally writing this page) I found the explanation for Indian apartment layout stupidity. There is a superstition called Vastu shastra that suggest position of each room by geographical orientation. If in the rest of world we prefer having living room at front (facing street) and kitchen at rear, in India people prefer to have kitchen in the south-east corner of home, living room in the north side, even if it will have view to a blank wall, etc, regardless of surroundings.

There are dozens of Vastu rules, sometimes various websites providing contradictory rules, that suggest everything starting from room layout to position of furniture inside each room, to garden around house. Probably no house can follow every rule, but following as many Vastu rules is possible give a premium valuation.

Even if not all indians are superstitious, real estate developers follow Vaastu rules to maximize apartment sales. To keep kitchen orientation to south-east, you can see in same block apartments with kitchen near entrance and other apartments with kitchen diagonally opposite from entrance.

6 billion people outside India never heard of Vaastu and are happy, half of India population of 1 billion people is superstitious and would not buy a house that do not follow Vaastu rules. Pretty stupid, isn’t?

The only GOOD thing about Indian apartments is their generous sizes for a third-world country with such high population density, being twice as big compared with apartments in Philippines, Brazil, and similar with European standards. But do note that these apartments are affordable for middle and upper class only. When the modern housing developments will reach the working class, the apartments are likely to be downsized.

Typical apartment size are 900-1100 sq ft for 2BHK and 1200-1600 sq ft for 3BHK (2-3 Bedrooms + Hall + Kitchen). 2-bedroom always have 2 toilets while 3-bedroom usually have 3 toilets (2 being attached to bedrooms), which is impressive considering that in other more developed countries such as Hong Kong and South Korea you can see some 3-bedroom with a single bathroom. 4-bedroom apartments are very rare and offered only in high-end condominiums, having 3000+ square feet. Minimum ceiling height in India is 9 feet / 2.70 meters according building code (in most countries ceiling is 2.40 – 2.60 meters).

Typical room size: living room 10×12 ft to 16×20 ft, dining room 10×12 to 12×14 ft, kitchen 7×10 to 10×12 ft, bedrooms 10×10 ft to 12×16 ft, bathrooms from 5×7 ft to 6×8 ft.

Most indians live in landed houses, dense houses that cover whole plot, adjacent to neighbor houses on all 3 sides or even 4 sides, having no view to street, rooms being ventilated through small courtyards and access to house is made via a narrow alley, sometimes alley is covered by other houses. Except the few rich neighborhoods in major cities, most Indian cities looks like huge slums, very few roads visible from satellite photos.

Bungalow in India is synonym with detached house in America and Europe, same meaning like in Singapore and Malaysia, and owning a bungalow is seen like a status symbol.

Horrible examples found so far:
example 1, worse example: Lush country having balconies facing to wall at 1 meter apart.
Sriven Splendour, 12 apartments per floor of which one is in the middle with view to internal courtyard.
Classic-Archana, 15 apartments per floor of which 2 in the middle with view to internal courtyard.
LVS Elite, WORST apartment layout I ever saw! 2 apartments in the middle, with NO view at all??!!
GR Signature, again apartments in the middle. Notice how every apartment have kitchen is in south-east corner and every living room in north side, regardless of view.

For the rich indians: Parsvnath Exotica offers 400-800 sqm apartments. This is NOT the biggest apartment in India, it is just one found accidentally.

Indians are the WORST people to do business with

There is a trend for various American and European companies to outsource to India their work, due to cheaper workforce. Many indians are trying to join the outsourcing business without having skills and ethics, they charge low prices but offer very low quality works. My friends warned me to NOT hire Indian freelancers, I advised them to not stereotype, not all Indians offer bad services, but majority, and finding a good one is quite tricky. Do yourself a Google search “India outsourcing FAIL” and see why they are BAD!

Another problem is the SPAM from India. As website owner, even without being in webdesign field, I receive daily emails promoting Web Development & SEO services, 90% of them are originating from India, from those indians without skills. Webdesign companies from America and Europe are even more spammed with emails and phone calls from India. Moreover their so-called SEO services involve spamming other websites with backlinks in attempt to uprank your website in Google search results, which is against Google guidelines and sooner or later you will get caught and downranked or even banned from appearing in search results. Read more: SEO SPAM from India.

These Indians without skills spamming emails further damage reputation of India, legit and skilled Indian IT companies lose customers as well.

Personally I do not hire Indian freelancers, instead I am myself freelancer offering AutoCAD & architectural design services to customers all around the world, and this is the main reason for which I say that Indians are the WORST people to do business with.

When building a house in India, paying a professional architect is not common. Most people browse internet taking floor plans from various websites for free and try to adapt to their needs. Some people do pay architects, who are offering cheap services but only a simple floor plan rather than a complete project, many details, including plumbing and electrical system, are decided during construction, resulting in numerous construction flaws.

But what is really disturbing, are those Indians who contact websites and request things even if they are not willing to pay. Whenever is a live chat available, Indians send messages on chat within first minute without checking what services I provide and that they cost money. Indians also make requests on multiple websites, and when I am ready to help them, they no longer need my help. Indians often request things on websites that do not offer the things they request, for example I have seen information-only real estate websites from various countries, that do not offer architecture services, filled up with indian comments like “I need a 3BHK house plan x by y feet, please email me at…”.

This create a high number of leads from India that do not convert into paying customers. A pain in the ass for anyone offering services online!

I can tell this from my personal experience, on my House Design page, I get from India 20% traffic and 40% chats, in 2014 over 100 people asked me for house plans and only 1 paid me for my design and this after days of annoyance (for comparison, in other countries 1 of 10 pay, sometimes in advance).

Several architects from various countries, that collaborated with me, told me that are also pissed off by emails from Indian clients asking for advices and house plans for free, with no intention to pay for service. Read more: BAD indian customers.

Housing in China

China seems a good place to live, despite of having a communist government. But beware that internet censorship is high, numerous popular websites such as Youtube and Blogger are considered to have offensive content so are blocked by government. On my Blogspot websites I never had a single visitor from China, but I had from all surrounding countries, but at least… Webs.com is not blocked so I get chinese visitors on my website (this website was running on free hosting Webs.com until 2012).

What other type of info would you like to see in this page? Leave comments!

After 1990, when the communist governments in Europe felt down and the countries entered in economic decline, China entered in an economic boom, becoming one of the fastest growing economies, overtaking Japan in 2011 as GDP and is likely to overtake USA too during 2020s. Shanghai Metro was opened just in 1995 and after only 15 years, it reached over 400 km of lines in 2011 and overtook the 137-years old London Underground. Is planned to have over 800 km of lines by 2020. Will be the longest in the world, depending how much Beijing Metro will grow too.

Housing analysis

I have little knowledge about China housing compared with other countries. I spent much time studying China in Google Earth, but without english websites I cannot gain much information, also I see it quite uninteresting. I do not know when public housing began, but satellite photos shows that early public housing is already being demolished during 2000s.

Nowadays most of housing in China is privately built. Chinese cities are monotonous (like South Korea cities), having rows of linear buildings with identical apartments all over the city. From satellite photos I can see that most common block type is segmented block with 2 apartments per floor, with main rooms facing south, typical size 16 m long and 12 m wide, no significant increase over last 10-20 years. Most blocks are 6 floors, probably maximum height allowed without lifts. Most blocks are placed at 15 meters apart, probably minimum by law (quite dense compared with other countries).

After 2000 many modern housing complexes appeared, comprising high-rise blocks with more complex shapes, but the construction of traditional low-rise linear blocks continues. Most apartments have 2-3 bedrooms, some 4 bedrooms, and include a balcony for living room, after 2000s bay windows became common, there are 60-cm wide opening panels on each side and a fixed panel in the middle, exactly like in Hong Kong (I know that in Hong Kong a law from 1980s introduced plot ratios and exempted bay windows from gross floor area, but in China does anyone know what happened?).

According some sources, including statista.com, the housing reached a ratio 35 sqm per person in 2012, but this looks like a propaganda lie, this high ratio of sqm per capita is impossible since average apartment size is somewhere in 60-80 sqm, bedrooms small as 3×3 / 3×4 meters and multi-generation families are quite common in China, or maybe the statistics are made to include wall thickness, a sharepart of staircase and common areas, etc.

According shrinkthatfootprint.com average apartment size in China is 60 sqm but is not clear if is newly-built apartments or all apartments, probably all, because new apartments are bigger. It also shows 76 sqm in United Kingdom which accounts new houses only. According scmp.com is 646 sq ft.

There are plenty of floor plans, but websites are not in english, you should search in chinese 户型 or 公寓平面图 (Gōngyù píngmiàntú). Best if you can understand chinese (unlike me!)

Nice find: Housing in China case study: http://www.mcgill.ca/mchg/student/neighborhood/chapter2

Old blocks under demolition (unknown built year)
Old apartment blocks Old apartment blocks

Modern blocks (built 1990s-2000s)
Modern chinese apartments Dongguan apartments Jade Green Island, Dongguan

China feature also modern landed houses developments (villas)
Golden Apple villas, Shanghai

Craziness! A highway runs just 2 meters over apartment buildings, causing noise and dust to residents (Shuikousi bridge, Guiyang, bridge was built first in 1997, then about 10 apartment buildings were built under bridge in 1999)
Road above apartment buildings, Guiyang

Automobiles

Like other communist countries (or even worse than others), private car ownership in China was limited until 1980s and roads were full of bicycles. Mass car production stated in 1990s, exports started in 2000s with little success, due to the “brilliant” quality of chinese products!

Despite of low sales in foreign markets, the rising local market made China to be the new world leader in automobile production in 2009, overtaking Japan and United States (source: Wikipedia), producing 13 million cars (compared with 2 million cars in 2000). then 18 million in 2010 and 2011. See more in Automobile Production .XLS.

A lot of impressive highway interchanges were built in recent years, but… do they have enough parking spaces in apartment complexes?

Six-level stack interchange, Puxi, Shanghai

Housing in Europe

Housing in Europe is pretty similar all over the continent. If you though that ugly panel block public housing exists only in former communist eastern block, you are WRONG. Western Europe have ugly public housing too, but it is hidden at city outskirts and built to improve standard of living of the poor, usually inhabited by immigrants, it is a place for crimes. In Eastern Europe you see ugly public housing everywhere in the city. Socialists governments demolished most private houses including historical monuments and forced everyone, even the rich class, to move in low quality apartments.

Western Europe

One my favorite places to live are in the Northern Europe: Sweden, Finland, Norway, Iceland… all are equilibrated countries, wealthy population and low income inequality. All cities have a mix of high-rise and low-rise apartment blocks and landed houses neighborhoods, good infrastructure, good public transport and plenty of green space. Sweden have probably the best public housing of Europe, the Miljonprogrammet, supposedly building 1 million apartments in 1965-1974, but actually I see many more recent-built public housing, also is not normal for a public housing programme to end, so what is the truth?

Also, does anyone know about similar programmes of Norway and Finland? They have similar public housing too.

Almost same opinion about Germany, Denmark, and Netherlands, but just fewer apartment buildings and more landed houses. Definitely a BETTER place to live than in America.

See also Housing in Europe on Wikipedia, showing breakdown of housing types each European country.
And Greenlivingpedia, average size of NEW homes in various countries of Europe and not only.

Viikki, aerial view Reykjavík, view from a tower bock
Olso, aerial view Uppsala, aerial view Rinkeby, aerial view
Hundreds of aerial photos of Oslo and surroundings HERE

My attention was attracted by Berlin city because is the single city in the world which was governed by both communists and capitalists, so developed differently. West Berlin tourists visiting East Berlin were complaining about the grayness of city caused by communist public housing. WRONG! Both parts of Berlin have ugly and gray public housing, the difference is that in East Berlin many old buildings were demolished and you will see public housing everywhere, while in West Berlin you will find many beautiful pre-war buildings in central area, which hides the public housing at city outskirts. In the 2000s all public housing from both parts of city was renovated and painted in nice colors.

Apartment sizes are similar in both parts, about 50 sqm 2-room, 70 sqm 3-room, 85 sqm 4-room, but West Berlin is dominated by 3 to 5-storey blocks with 3- and 4-room while East Berlin by 8+ storey blocks with 2- and 3-room.

Mummelmannsberg, capitalist-style public housing from Hamburg
Mummelmannsberg

United Kingdom have the most uninteresting architecture of Europe, and too conservative people in my opinion. Newbies can easily confuse the houses built today with the ones built 100 years ago. Very few apartment buildings and landed houses everywhere, no distinctive features. United Kingdom homes are the smallest in Western Europe, average size of NEW homes is 76 sqm according Greenlivingpedia. Most common type is the 3-bedroom semi-detached and terraced houses, which are only around 70 sqm. Historical area of London is again less interesting compared with other European cities. Sorry, I do not like the UK architectural style. Almost same opinion about Ireland too.

DailyMail claims new house sizes 925 sq ft while 1920s houses were 1647 sq ft.

You MUST SEE THIS research showing average size, household size, number of bedrooms, etc, over last 1 CENTURY. Terraced houses were common before war, after war semi-detached houses were common, today detached became dominant in newly-built areas.

France have a lot of history and heritage buildings, Paris being the most visited city in the world by tourists, but I do not think that living conditions are so good like in Northern Europe, Germany or Italy. Extensive public housing programme in France, Habitation à Loyer Modéré, houses about 22% of country population. 3 and 4-room apartments are dominant, I am not sure about average apartment size but looks small. The blocks have many distinctive designs but most are simple, white and ugly.

Spain cities have extensive metro systems, dense cities with a lot of apartment buildings very close each other, with continuous facades, some apartments have view only to a 5-meter wide internal courtyard, parking is a major problem. Valencia old town have the most beautiful collection of buildings I ever seen, a lot of Art Deco buildings, following a height regime of Ground + 8 floors + 9th recessed floor. Possible law.

Italy have best preserved antique and medieval buildings. Most population lives in apartments, point blocks with no continuous facades, but most are old and too dense. At certain distance from city centers, the classic buildings ends and, before the city outskirts with modern buildings, there is a big number of Art Deco buildings which I love. Metro systems are scarce so traffic jams are common.

Venice is one of the biggest tourist attractions in the world, but also one of the WORST places to live in the world. The city of Venice have 270.000 people but include more areas than the well-known water city, of which population dropped from 120.000 in 1980 to 60.000 in 2010, of which one-third is aged above 65, according Wikipedia, mainly due to lack of jobs and emigration for a modern life, but paradoxically property prices are rising crazy, due to foreign investors buying buildings and renting to tourists.

Imagine living in Venice, what if you need to a car to drive through Italy? Newest areas of the city are old from 19th century so cannot offer a modern standard of living. Canals are several meters wide but distance between house facades across walkways be small as 1 meter. In some periods of year you need to walk through water to leave building. In most buildings the ground floor is uninhabitable. If you leave major canals you will see a lot of abandoned buildings in danger of collapse.

Nice video showing how Venice was built and how buildings are maintained to cope with the dangers of water: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IH4RYm63M_g

Turkey… with a growing population and developing economy, Turkey have a booming real estate industry since 1990s. Despite that it was never under communism, majority of population live in apartment buildings, lots of small detached buildings with 4-5 floors and 2 apartments per floor, and since 2000s high-rise towers with larger open spaces became common.

The competition of real estate developers created a lot of distinctive designs and colorful cities. Apartments follow the European layouts rather than Middle East lifestyle, with a hallway leading to living room and bedrooms, instead of entry directly in living room, 3-bedroom apartments are dominant and rooms are bigger compared with rest of Europe. Who loves studying modern residential buildings of Europe should keep an eye on Turkey!

Apartment sizes varies much: usually 1+1 rooms 40-70 sqm, 2+1 rooms 60-90 sqm, 3+1 rooms 90-130 sqm, 4+1 rooms 120-160 sqm, net areas. Most apartments with >2(bedrooms)+1(living) have 2 bathrooms but not always en-suite. Plenty of floor plans can be found by searching kat planari on Google.

Antalya, Turkey
Ankara, Turkey
 Antalya, Turkey
Istanbul, Turkey  Antalya, Turkey
Point mouse on photos to see place name!

Eastern Europe

Palace of the Parliament of Romania

Hard to believe for typical visitors of my website, I am romanian!!
I studied many romanian cities, before studying Singapore, and I found numerous similarities:

– Five-year housing programmes starting from 1960s, HDB in Singapore founded in 1960 too.
– Public housing in Bucharest house 80-85% of population… same like Singapore.
– Density in public housing of Bucharest reach 250 units per hectare in 1970s neighborhoods built entirely/mostly with 10-storey blocks (even HIGHER than Singapore’s standard of 200 units per hectare used until 1990s, 12-storey blocks in average), 70000 people per sq km (what helped reaching this density is the apartment average size 55 sqm compared with 95 sqm in Singapore).
– Nationwide car ratio is 1 car per 6 people, same like Singapore, but Bucharest car ratio is about 1 car per 2.5 people, exceeding number of designated parking lots about 10 times, many Romanians use their car everyday so traffic is a hell, while Singapore have best public transport in the world.

Housing in Romania

Between World War I and II, Romania was largely a rural country, but Bucharest enjoyed real estate boom, several hundred luxury apartment blocks with Art-Deco theme were built, reaching heights of Ground+12f, making streets to look like canyons, making Bucharest to look like New York, especially on Victoriei and Magheru streets. The apartment sizes reach 150 sqm and top floors are recessed, offering penthouse units with roof terraces. Unfortunately, the real estate boom combined with lack of earthquake engineering caused collapse of 30 of them at 1977 earthquake, many of remaining pre-war buildings risk to collapse at the next earthquake.

More photos with Art Deco buildings on rezistenta.net, also with damaged buildings on 1977 earthquake.

Bucharest was also nicknamed “Little Paris” in inter-war period, but personally I don’t see significant similarity with Paris. Also, majority of cars seen on Romanian roads were American-produced.

Photos from Magheru street: present vs 1930s.
Creditul Minier, Bucuresti 1930s Magheru, Bucharest
Unnamed Building on Magheru Hotel Ambasador, Bucharest

1930s video… can you believe that this is Bucharest and not New York?
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Romanian real estate during communism

Monarch was abolished in 1947 and communists took control. In the first decade of communist regime, lead by Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej numerous factories were built and economy was rising fast. Public housing development was limited to redevelopment of the areas destroyed by World War II and in-fill developments to street facades, and small-scale neighborhoods, composed by G+2, G+3 blocks, G+7f high-rise blocks, as well as terraced and semi-detached houses.

Mass housing programme began in 1960, large-scale apartment complexes being built at outskirts of every major city, composed by walk-up blocks G+4f and tower blocks G+9f, at minimum 30 meters apart.

Nicolae Ceaușescu, known as one of the most brutal leaders in the world, became head of state in 1967. Economy growth was slowing down. Instead of brick buildings, they used prefabricated panels, allowed building a block in less than 1 year, construction ratio was increased but quality of apartments was reduced, stripping wood floors and wall tiles. Blocks were G+4f and G+10f, at minimum 20 meters apart.

Most blocks ave 4 units per floor, some 2 or 3 units per floor to provide more 3/4-room apartments. There are also all-1-room blocks with 12 or more units per floor. Despite that communist promote equality, most Romanian blocks have 2 apartment types, some even 3 (2/3/4-room). This is less common in other communist countries.

Apartment complexes followed same pattern like other communist countries, towers in a park, large green spaces, low number of streets, number of apartments facing main roads kept at minimum.

But, after 1975 they changed radically: blocks were build facing streets, surrounding a semi-enclosed courtyard used for parking, G+8f at major streets and G+4f at minor streets, front-facing apartments get pollution and back-facing apartments get blocked views, minimal distance between blocks was reduced to 12m, green space became minimal, but the density (units per hectare) is lower compared with pre-1975 complexes, due to the space occupied by roads and parking access. Example: Berceni neighborhood, the area eastern than Soseaua Berceni is built after 1975, see difference compared with western area built before 1975?

Typical apartment sizes: 1-room (25-35 sqm), 2-room (35-50 sqm), 3-room (45-65 sqm), 4-room (55-75 sqm), while the block models introduced in 1985 have apartments 20% bigger: 1-Room (40 sqm), 2-room (60 sqm), 3-room (80 sqm), 4-room (100 sqm), in same period were still under construction blocks from 1975 and 1980 generations, but in the complexes planned after 1985 the average apartment size goes to 70 sqm. The numbers do not include walls or balconies… this is the Romanian law.

Bucharest statistics: population at the 2002 census: 1,926,334 inhabitants, 10% lower than the peak in 1990. According my own statistics, there’s about 610,000 apartments in the city, that houses 80-85% of the population. I estimate average apartment size at 55 sqm and the distribution is 15% 1-Room, 35% 2-Room, 40% 3-Room, 10% 4-Room, <0.5% 5-Room, this means 2.8 people per family and 20 sqm per capita. Smaller cities have the distribution 10% 1-Room, 45% 2-Room, 40% 3-Room, 5% 4-Room, bigger family size, and the ratio can go down to 10 sqm per capita. Estimation may have an error margin due to many people residing in small cities and villages but actually living in big cities. Countrywide average apartment size is around 50 sqm.

Almost every town with more than 20.000 people have few tower blocks. Some cites over 200.000 people also have one, two or three Ground+12-14f block near train station. Bucharest have 10 blocks Ground+15-17f too.

The apartment floor plans have entrance door leading to a hallway, the living room, kitchen and bedrooms are accessible from hallway, so the low number of bedrooms is compensated by using living room for sleeping purposes. About half of apartments, mostly pre-1975 ones have passing-thought living room, a style common and appreciated in America and Asia, but in Romania, due tolow number of bedrooms, apartments built with such floor plan are underpriced.

Some apartments have full-length balconies (12 m long balcony for 3-room), other apartments have no balconies at all. Some 1980s blocks have balconies varying in shape from floor to floor, possible to break the monotony, but in my opinion is an aesthetic disaster. Closure of balconies after fall of communism made everything uglier.

Public housing in Romania: The BEST (Unirii Bulevard) vs The WORST (Ferentari District)
Bulevardul Unirii, high-end public housing Ferentari, low-end public housing

Typical cities, aerial view… see the amount of colorless
Botosani, aerial view Vulcan, aerial view

Caged balconies that remind me of Hong Kong… but this is Romania (Ferentari neighborhood)!
Caged balconies in Romania, reminds me of Hong Kong Caged balconies in Romania, reminds me of Hong Kong

Communist public housing is known as low-quality housing, however if in Singapore all blocks built up to 1990 had lifts stopping every 4-5 floors (same for social housing built in UK and USA), in Romania the lifts stopped on every floor since earliest 1950s housing. Please note that majority of blocks are 5-storey and do not have lifts at all (walk-up blocks do not have refuse chute either, people who are lazy to go downstairs throw the trash out of window).

The communist government built about 3 million apartments nationwide (source: Ziarul Financiar – PS: do not trust the apartment sizes specified in that article, they are inflated, probably exclude studio apartments, include balconies, etc).

My personal estimation is that they housed 40% of the country population of 23 million people in 1990 (today population dropped to 20 million people), note that 45-50% of country population still live in villages, then several more percents live in so-called cities but in same countryside conditions.

Since 1982 Ceaușescu became obsessed to pay the country foreign dept, thus increased workdays from 5 to 6, rationalized food and gas, limited television to 1 channel broadcasting only 2 hours per day, mostly propaganda, turned off district heating at random times and created daily power blackouts to “save energy” for heavy industry, increased production by quantity instead of quality, and tried to export as much is possible by creating shortages of food and other goods in his own country, but the products were noncompetitive on export markets and the profits were small. People had to wait few years to buy a car, a TV set, etc. This dramatically lowered the living standards of Romanians. The foreign debt was fully paid in mid-1989 but the heavy exports continued, population tired of austerity started to 1989 Romanian Revolution , when about 100 people where shot by army at others of the president before the army joined with population and shot the president, and another 1000 people were killed over next days for no reason.

What intrigues is what were the living conditions in other communist countries and how they overthrown the communist governments non-violently and without killing their leaders.

Romanian real estate after fall of communism

After fall of communism, economy worsened even more, unemployment, inflation, rising criminality, etc. Prices were rising more than salaries, as many local factories of cheap products were closed, many goods started being imported and this increased cost of living. This is valid for most former eastern block countries. During 1990s only East Germany and Czech Republic managed to recover and reach gross domestic product peak from communism, while Romania reached during 2000s. Lots of violent anti-government protests still happen across Eastern Europe, including 1990, 1991 and 1999 Romanian Mineriads2011-2012 Russian protests2012 Romanian anti-Basescu protests, and 2013-2014 Euromaidan (Ukraine). Romanians demand higher salaries, but the country economy is not powerful enough to pay them.

Very little improvements in infrastructure were done by capitalist governments. Massive emigration made Romania to suffer from lack of skilled workforce, especially in health and education system. All these problems keep foreign investors away and raise concerns about the future of this country.

No new apartment buildings were built in Romania between 1990 and 2002. During 2000s Romania experienced the biggest property bubble in the world, apartment prices rising 10 times in 5 years, reaching prices comparable with Western Europe despite that salaries were still low although they also rose. Private apartment construction started.

Romania and Bulgaria joined European Union as 1 January 2007, making easier for foreign real estate investors to come there. Numerous new apartment projects were launched, many luxury apartments aimed to new affluent class of Romanians.

After 20 years of capitalism, Romania was hit hard by 2008 recession. Gross domestic product felt down for 5 consecutive years, and real estate prices in Bucharest felt from 2300 euro / sqm in 2008 to 1300 euro / sqm in 2009, continued to fall to 1000 euro / sqm in 2014 then stagnated (source: imobiliare.ro), people no longer able to pay mortgage, banks put their homes at auction, and, as I have seen in the news, there were cases in which house value was not enough to pay the debt so they had to sell at auction houses of family relatives too. Number of apartments built in 25 years of capitalism (1990-2015) is lower than what was built in 1 year of communism. Half of apartments started in 1990-2010 are abandoned as 2015, due to recession.

New apartments built in capitalism times have larger rooms compared with communist apartments, big as 40 sqm 1-room, 70 sqm 2-room and 100 sqm 3-room, but majority are 1- and 2-room, and are still too expensive for typical romanian worker. Even if I live here I do not understand why they are not building apartments with smaller but more rooms. Crazy and stupid!

What are the good parts of Romania:
– The beautiful villages in Transylvania, where the traditions are preserved for centuries.
– Well developed mountain tourism, ski resorts, thanks to communist regime.
– The wealth distribution is pretty good, thanks to communist regime who eliminated rich people. Recently there are few homeless people and few too rich people, but not as worse like in Latin America countries which have similar GDP per capita but significant population is under poverty line. Note that many countries outside Europe are fast-developing so may exceed Romania soon.
– I have NOTHING to praise about post-1989 capitalist regime.

More details about living conditions, see Life in my country page.

Landed housing

Landed housing in Romania (and rest of Eastern Europe) is very spread, in rural areas and small cities, houses have yards over 1000 sqm, there are many villages with population small as 1000 people, but over 5 km long, sometimes a single-road villages.

In cities, lot frontages are narrow and many houses are attached to North border of lot (or North-East, North-West). Courtyard surround the house on 3 sides. in Transylvania many houses are L-shaped by having additional wing parallel to street, forming a continuous street facade.

There are very few terraced or semi-detached houses in Romania.

Car industry

Eastern Europe developed own car industry, but while Western Europe manufacturers were replacing car models every 8-10 years in average, Eastern Europe cars were produced for many decades without any major changes, and continued to be produced after fall of communism due to economy fall, they were the only cars that population could afford.

Notable examples: Dacia 1300-1410 = Renault 12 clone (1969-2004), Polski Fiat 125p (1967-1991), FSO Polonez (1978-2002), GAZ M24 Volga (1970-2010), Lada Zhiguli / Nova (1970-2012), Lada Samara (1984-2013), Trabant 601 (1964-1991), Wartburg 353 (1965-1991), Zastava Skala 1971-2008), Zastava Koral (1978-2008). Due to focusing to exports, waiting list to buy a car was up to 10 years.

Interestingly, Turkey despite that was all time a capitalist country, had some long-production models too: Renault 12 (1971-2000) and Fiat 131 (1977-2002).

After fall of communism, some of the Eastern Europe car factories were purchased by western automakers and launched new models: Skoda Felicia in 1994 and Dacia Logan in 2004, some car factories abandoned their marque, example: Zastava now produce Fiat models, ZAZ now produce Daewoo models, while other car factories were simply closed: ARO, GAZ, Izh, Moskwitch.

Cars like Dacia Logan cost about 6000-8000 euro, but are still too expensive for most of Romanians, who buy used cars averaging 10 years old at 2000-3000 euro. Used cars imports from Western Europe exceed sales of new cars.

The megalithic projects of Nicolae Ceaușescu

Many foreigners associate Ceausescu with the oversized Palace of the Parliament, but in reality it is just one of the 7 megalithic buildings. 7 square kilometers were razed since 1983, 40.000 people were evicted by a single day’s notice, a lot of historical monuments were destroyed. This represents the largest peacetime destruction in the world history. Most of these projects were hit by 1989 revolution and are still unfinished today. They show the inabilities of capitalist idiots compared with communist regime. Supposedly, Ceausescu was inspired by 1971 visit in North Korea. However I studied North Korea too and I do not see much similarity in architecture of Romania.

Casa Poporului (People’s House, now Palace of the Parliament), it is also the largest government building in the world and largest building named “palace”, 270 by 240 meters, 86 meters tall, 12 floors plus 8 basement floors including nuclear bunker, it sits on a 1.8 sq km site. Construction started 1984, scheduled to be completed in 1990, but due to fall of communism, construction slowed down and was not used until 1997 when the parliament moved in it, today the basement floors are still unfinished.

Palatul Parlamentului Inside of Palace of the Parliament Casa Poporului

Casa Radio (Radio House), 200 x 145 meters, never completed. Sold in 2006 to an Israel investor who planned to demolish 70% of building and convert it in mall, offices and apartments… but the project has been abandoned due to 2008 recession.

Casa Radio

Academy House, 220 x 80 meters, located in the left side of Parliament. Opening date unknown, back side of building still not finished.

Academia Romana Academia Romana

Ministry of Defense House, 195 x 80 meters, located behind Parliament. Construction and opening date unknown.

Ministerul Apararii Nationale

Unknown-name building, left side of Defense House, 140 x 80 meters, opened in 1999 as JF Marriott Hotel.

JF Marriott Hotel

Biblioteca Nationala (National Library), 120 x 150 meters, construction started in 1986, abandoned after 1989, resumed in 2009, facades partially demolished and rebuilt with glass, making it very ugly in my opinion, and opened in 2012.

Abandoned National Library Abandoned National Library Biblioteca Nationala Biblioteca Nationala

Magazin Junior (a mall), opposite Library, 120 x 50 meters, opened in 1987 but ground floor only, closed in 1992. Rebuilt during 2000s, since 2006 it houses the Bucharest Court.

Tribunalul Bucuresti

Unirii Boulevard & Civic Centre, a luxury public housing complex build around the 7 megalithic buildings and a monumental boulevard measuring 3 km long and 90 meter wide.

Bulevardul Unirii Bulevardul Unirii
Bucharest aerial view

Centrul Cultural, a project with no info available, except what is seen from air in the center of above aerial photo: a massive foundation in the size of 230 x 150 meters. We don’t know if there was planned to be a building or an open-air plaza.

Centrul cultural

Circul Foamei, a series of identical buildings, 100 x 60 meters. Started in late 1980s and intended for food distribution, 2 of them were finished in 1989 while the others remained abandoned until 2000s when were converted in malls or demolished.

Circul Foamei din Rahova

Văcărești Park, a massive 2 sq km amusement park with a massive lake in middle of Bucharest, started in 1988, today it looks like a jungle.

Unfinished apartment buildings, construction of each block in communist times took about 1 year, so hundred of apartments blocks were caught by 1989 revolution. Some of them were turned into offices during 1990s, others were completed as residential during 2000s, but few of them remained abandoned even in 2014.

4 apartment blocks in Nerva Traian street, abandoned in 1989 and converted in office buildings
Nerva Traian blocks Nerva Traian blocks

Unfinished block in Aviatiei district
Unfinished block in Aviatiei neigborhood Unfinished block in Aviatiei neigborhood

Bucharest Metro, one of few communist projects that actually improved the standards of living. It was first planned in 1938 during King’s regime, scrapped due to WW2, started in 1975 by Ceausescu’s regime, scheduled to be completed in 2000, with 8 lines totaling ~100 km. First line opened in 1979 and reached 55 km on 3 lines at the time of revolution. From 1990 to 2010 the capitalist regime managed to finish and open additional 8 km of the lines started by communism regime, so never mind about starting new lines.

Cernavoda nuclear power plant, started in early 1980s and planned with 5 reactors, to date only 2 reactors have been completed (first in 1996 and second in 2007), producing 18% of national energy consumption.

Danube – Black Sea Canal, 95 km long, 90 m wide, 7 m deep, started in 1973 completed in 1984, north branch in 1987, today it is viewed as unnecessary projects because based on its current revenues, several hundred years are necessary to recover investment.

Danube – Bucharest Canal, 73 km long, designed to make the capital city also a river port, it was started in 1986 and was 60% completed in 1990 when it was abandoned.

Housing in Russia

Private home ownership was abolished in Soviet Union in 1918 and all owners became tenants. People who owned too large houses or apartments received new tenants sharing space and facilities.

Very interesting are the Soviet pre-war public housing, massive buildings full of ornaments, offering “luxury” communal apartments with up to 10 rooms, each room having 15-25 square meters and 3-3.5 meter ceiling height. Original idea was to give 1 or 2 rooms for each family, the minimum area was 5 sqm per person or if this rule was exceeded they could apply for a new home, but due to high rate of migration towards cities and low construction ratio, the waiting list became long as 10 years, 2 families had to share each room, dividing it with wood walls and building lofts in the high ceiling. In some cases a 150-200 sqm apartment housed 50 people sharing a single kitchen and one or two bathrooms.

A good educational website, with video tours, about communal living in Russia: http://kommunalka.colgate.edu.

Living conditions are probably unimaginable for today people, but residents having water and electricity, uncommon in 1920s Russia, were happy, and the communal living gave a sense of security. In 1953 Soviet Union switched on low-cost blocks with single-family apartments to reduce housing shortage and to improve privacy, from 1960s the blocks used prefabricated panels. Some residents were again happy to have own kitchen and bathroom, but some see the new blocks ugly and claustrophobic and even today they enjoy living in these pre-war communal apartments.

Pre-war public housing

Soviet Union feature the most massive apartment buildings in the world, most blocks being 100-200 meters long, but some over 500 meters long, most with 8 or 16 stories and very big spaces between them… but, the paradox: despite of being the biggest country in the world, Soviet Union did not enlarged apartments over years and the average remained around 50 sqm even in 1980s (source), smallest apartments in communist world.

Sankt Petersburg Moskow apartment blocks

Seems that post-communist Russia keep demolishing houses to built apartment towns, example Chelyabinsk 55.19030N 61.27660E, photo below. Proof: open it in Google Earth (not Google Maps) and go to View > Historical Imagery, it is build between 2007 and 2010 images, it looks like communist panel blocks, just that is better coloured. Does anyone know if these are public housing or privately built?

Chelyabinsk Beautiful apartment in Kiew
Point mouse cursor on photos to see place name!

A city interesting to study is Prypiat, the main city feeding workers to Chernobyl Power Plant. A city that had around 50,000 people in 1986 and now have 0. It is one of the greenest cities in the world.

Pripyat, Chernobyl abandoned town

Housing in other Eastern Bloc countries

Eastern Bloc housing and living conditions are similar across all countries, just very small differences: countries closer to Central Europe have bigger proportions of 3-room and 4-room. Czechoslovakia have biggest apartments (average 75 sqm), followed by Hungary (average 70 sqm).

Hungary is the only country where I found statistics, according Wikipedia, at 2011 census were 829,177 apartments, housing 17.5% of country population, 7.1% one-bedroom, 50.8% two-bedroom, 33.4% three-bedroom, 9.4% four bedroom. There’s possible to be wrong translation and they meant ROOM and not BEDROOM. I don’t think that there are 33.4% three-bedroom when in Romania are less than 10%.

Tallest communist panel block is Magasház, Pécs, 25 floors (20 residential floors), it is also tallest unused building in Europe, it has been evacuated in 1989 due to structural problems. Followed by Block 1V – Mladost, Sofia, 24 floors. Tallest in Romania are 18 floors.

Most communist apartment blocks in Eastern Block were designed to withstand 50 years. Since mass housing construction began in 1960s, more and more blocks will reach their lifetime in the next decade, and the country economies are not powerful enough to replace them. This could lead to a big disaster, especially in Romania which experience earthquakes of 7 – 7.7 grades Richter every 30-40 years. Last earthquakes were in 1908, 1940 (300 deaths), 1977 (1600 deaths). 40 years passed since last earthquake so we should expect anytime a new earthquake and the age of blocks will surely cause few thousand of deaths! First earthquake laws appeared in 1963, all buildings were designed to withstand 8 grade earthquakes, but nobody knows how many are still able to withstand today, after numerous illegal modifications made after fall of communism, especially in buildings with shops at ground floor. More worse, the new, post-communist buildings may be not even designed to withstand earthquakes, today nobody inspect them and the laws are meant to be broken. In Bucuresti alone, over 300 inspected buildings, mostly pre-war, were classified as risk of collapse in case of earthquake, nobody knows how many buildings risk to collapse but never inspected. Since 2004 to 2012, only 12 were seismic retrofit.

Prefab blocks proved their robustness at Romania earthquakes, but they are vulnerable in case of gas explosions which leads to chain collapse. The Ronan Point collapse in 1968 put an end of high-rise public housing in United Kingdom, but in Communist side panel blocks were introduced during 1960s and built until fall of communism. A block collapsed in Astrakhan, Russia in 2012: video 1 (after explosion) and video 2 (total collapse few minutes later), SHOCKING!

Hong Kong floor plans

I made this page from my own research… in a similar way in which I made Singapore research one year ago. Page published first time in January 2011, updated in 2012 and 2013, next update: when I find new interesting things or someone ask me to add new stuff.

Explanation of Gross and Saleable floor areas
See also Excel database of public and private housing estates

Hong Kong Public Housing

Hong Kong Housing Authority was formed in 1954, soon after a major file in Shek Kip Mei left 53000 people homeless on christmas day of 1953.

The first public housing estate, Shek Kip Mei Estate was ready in 1954. The “flats” were just one room of 120 square feet, kitchen and bathrooms were communal, shared by all floor residents. Original plan was to allocate 24 square feet (2.2 square meters) per adult and half that for each child under 12. But due to the extreme shortage in available housing, a flat was shared by more than one family, 10-15 people per room were common in its first years, and during summer months, people were sleeping also on corridors.

Lower Ngau Tau Kok Estate, built in early 1960s, was in the first group of estates built with lifts. All blocks were 16-floor high, elevators were stopping at ground, 8th and 13th floors.

All were resettlement estates (temporary housing).

In 1961 the “low-cost housing” scheme was introduced through the construction of 62380 flats in 18 public housing estates.

In 1963 the minimum area per person was increased to 35 sq ft (3.3 sq m).

In 1973 the government announced a ten-year plan for the public provision of housing, to provide everyone in Hong Kong with permanent, self-contained housing with a target of housing for 1.8 million people. Developing started for New Towns, away from urban area. The program was later extended to 15 years.

In 1978 the government launched Home Ownership Scheme, some of them are designed with private architects, creating Private Sector Participation Scheme one year later, which offers a bigger diversity in designs.

In 1998 the government launched Tenants Purchase Scheme, it was targeted to help increase ownership ratio to 70% by 2006 by selling rental flats to tenants.

Due to worsening economic situation, and complaints from private developers about bad effects of HOS to their projects, construction of new HOS flats ended in 2003, also new launches of TPS were suspended.

Today the minimum area per person is 5.5 m² (does anyone know since when?), aka all rental units which do not meet this minimum are subject to relocation elsewhere as soon as new rental flats are available.

Housing Authority – floor plans of main block types

Floor plans are in PDF format so you need to have Adobe Reader installed.
Funny case: someone asking me to give him floor plans, saying that my website provide only numbers… probably he did not had Adobe Reader.
Point mouse on photos to see estate name!

Since late 2010, the Hong Kong Housing Authority website provides floor plans for most HOS and TPS estates, but requires a lot of searching through estates list to find floor plan of certain block type. So I decided to make here links to floor plans of most common block types. There is no way to find floor plans of PRH estates. In August 2012 a visitor told me that Housing Authority added floor plans for PRH standard blocks too here, no idea when they were added. The page of my website risk to become useless…

The block types refers more about apartments layout rather than block shape. For example, Concord blocks contains 47 sqm 3-room and 60 sqm 4-room, usually 8 apartments per floor in a + layout, but some blocks are shaped like Y and Z with 6 apartments per floor of same type, still being named Concord. Flat size specified is the Saleable area.

Old Slab block aka Mark I, Mark II, Mark III, Mark IV, etc, all PRH and TPS (1954-1984)
Floor plan Old Slab, variable units per floor, this one 25 sqm, 16 meters width (some blocks have bigger units).
This blogger chan88.blogspot.com have floor plans and photos of Mark blocks. I prefer to link his website than copying his images on my website.

Shek Kip Mei Shek Kip Mei Shek Kip Mei
So Uk Estate Tsz Wan Shan
More photos with old estates on
Flickr.

Single / Twin Tower block, all PRH (1970-1983)
No floorplan (because all are rental and no TPS), flat area 33-40 sqm (internal floor area)

New Slab block, all PRH and TPS (1977-1991)
Floor plan New Slab, variable units per floor, all 32 sqm, 17 meters width.
Floor plan New Slab, another version which have some units small as 12 sqm.
Some Slab blocks are 12 meters width and some 19 meters width. What type are these!?

Twin Tower New Slab Twin Tower

Single / Double H block, all PRH and TPS (1977-1986)
Floor plan Double H, flat area 29-65 sqm.

Single / Double / Triple I block, all PRH (1980-1983)
A kind of zig-zag shape. No floor plan available (because all are rental and no TPS), flat area 33-40 sqm (internal floor area)

Trident block, PRH, TPS and HOS (1979-1992)
Floor plan Trident 1, 36 units per floor, flat area 27 sqm.
Floor plan Trident 2, 24 units per floor, flat area 35-45 sqm.
Floor plan Trident 3, 24 units per floor, flat area 35-49 sqm.
Floor plan Trident 3 variation, 32 units per floor, some small as 14 sqm.
Floor plan Trident 4, 18 units per floor, flat area 34-55 sqm.

Trident 4 Trident 4 Windmill

Linear block, all PRH and TPS (1979-1991)
Floor plan Linear 1, flat area 13.5-53 sqm.

Old Cruciform block, PRH and HOS (1978-1983)
Floor plan Old Cruciform, 8 units per floor, size 32×32 m, flat area 50 sqm.
Floor plan Old Cruciform, 8 units per floor, size ? m, flat area 43-52 sqm.

Flexi block, all HOS (1981-1991)
Floor plan Flexi 1, 8 units per floor, size 30×25 m, flat area 37-52 sqm.
Floor plan Flexi 2, 8 units per floor, size 30×25 m, flat area 40-44 sqm.
Floor plan Flexi 3, 8 units per floor, size 30×25 m, flat area 43-46 sqm.

Flexi 3 Flexi 2

Slab block, one single block, HOS (1984)
Floor plan Slab, different from Old Slab and New Slab. 3-bedroom, flat area probably around 42 sqm.

Windwill block, all HOS (1984-1986)
Floor plan Windwill, 16 units per floor, size 43×40 m, flat area 31-38 sqm.

New Cruciform Block, all HOS except some recent ones (1986-present)
Floor plan New Cruciform, 10 units per floor, size 42×35 m, flat area 3-room 37 sqm, 4-room 51 sqm, 4-room 59 sqm.

New Cruciform New Cruciform New Cruciform New Cruciform

Harmony block, PRH and HOS (1993-present) (rental Harmony block were built since 1970s!)
Floor plan Harmony 1, 4 wings and 16 units per floor, size 53×48 m, flat types: 2-room 40 sqm, 3-room 50 sqm, 4-room 55-60 sqm.
Floor plan Harmony 1 variation, 4 wings and 20 units per floor, size 53×48 m, flat types: studio 19 sqm, 2-room 40 sqm, 3-room 50 sqm, 4-room 55 sqm.
Floor plan Harmony 2, 3 wings and 18 units per floor.
Floor plan Harmony 3, the T-shaped one with 14 units per floor.

Harmony 1 Harmony 1 New Harmony

Concord block, all HOS except some recent ones (2000-present)
Floor plan Concord 1, cross-shaped, 8 units per floor, size: 39×34 m, flat types: 3-room 47 sqm, 4-room 60 sqm.
Floor plan Concord 2, Z-shaped, 6 units per floor, size: 33×22 m. flat types: 3-room 47 sqm.

Concord 1 Concord 2

New Harmony block, all PRH (2003-present)
No floor plan available (because all are rental), 16 units per floor, flat types ?

New Flexi block, all PRH (only 2 blocks built in 2006)
No floor plan available (because all are rental), 12 units per floor, flat types ?

Small Household Blocks, different types, 1975-present)
No floor plan available, these mysterious blocks are found in both PRH and HOS estates and contains small flats probably for elderly, given based by other rules.

Non-standard blocks (any block with no given name)
One example of non-standard block with 12 units per floor, split-level, flat types: 3-4 rooms 38-57 sqm.

Non-standard Non-standard Non-standard

Private Sector Participation Scheme (different types, 1981-2001)
Floor plan of most common type of PSPS blocks (75% of PSPS estates are using this layout with 10 units per floor, just small dimension differences), size 38×29 m, flat types: 3-room 40 sqm, 3-room 45 sqm, 4-room 55 sqm.

Conclusion:
Harmony blocks provides the biggest apartments for their number of rooms. Which is the best apartment in Hong Kong?… hmm, probably the 59 sqm one from New Cruciform and the 60 sqm one from Concord.

Tin Fu Court

Housing Society

Hong Kong Housing Society was formed in 1948. The first rental estate, Sheung Li Uk, was built in 1952. Clague Garden Estate built in 1989 was the first Flat-For-Sale estate. Tivoli Garden built in 1995 was the first Sandwich Class Housing Scheme estate (public housing for middle-class priced like private housing).

No floor plan is published on their official website. Centadata contains floor plans of some of the ownership estates.

Jat Min Chuen Tivoli Garden

Hong Kong Private Housing

Private housing include tenement buildings, stand-alone buildings, private housing estates, villas and village houses.

Looking for private housing floor plans? Look on centadata.com, it shows floorplans of almost all estates, also gohome.com.hk shows floorplans of most estates as well as villas. Note that in Hong Kong the term “condominium” is never used, do not search “hong kong condo floor plan” because you will find nothing relevant.

Tenements are up to 8 floors + ground (maximum allowed height without lifts), typically 10 to 14 meters wide and with 2 apartments per floor, having view in both sides. Most tenements have large cantilevered balconies that extend 2 meters over sidewalk. Apartments were large and since 1960s many of them were subdivided illegally and rented to poor families, on facade there are a lot of objects added that makes them to look dirty, on rooftops are huts and additional dwelling units. Mong Kok district have lowest household income and highest ratio of elderly people, and yes it is dominated by tenements, being considered one of the ugliest neighborhoods in the world.

Ugly Buildings Kowloon Kowloon tenements Kowloon tenements

This user have large collection of photos of tenement buildings.

Private housing built since 1960s have a podium that serve also as commercial space at ground floor, covering entire plot area, and residential towers above it. Low-end blocks had central double-loaded corridor (example: these 8 blocks around Man Cheong Street, Kowloon, but most common is the cruciform typology. Balconies are no longer common in private housing estates as they were in tenements, except to high-end developments, bay windows became common since 1980. Balconies became again common during 2000, but they are usually small as 2 sqm.

My attention was attracted by the area around Yuet Wah Street, there are 33 gated developments, 4407 apartments (counted from Centadata) built in 1962-1970, all them being 12-storey tall plus void deck at ground floor for parking. Looks like that this area was a luxury neighborhood for 1960s standards, well-renovated and still beautiful!

Mei Foo Sun Chuen was the first “Private Housing Estate” and largest private development in the world at its time, currently it is still the largest housing estate in Hong Kong, having 99 blocks with 5 to 8 units per floor (2 blocks are extended to 12 units per floor), total 13149 apartments from 2-bedroom to 4-bedroom, was built in phases from 1969 to 1978.

Tai Koo Shing, 61 blocks, 12693 apartments, built 1978-1987

City One Shatin, 52 blocks, 10642 apartments, built 1981-1988

Whampoa Garden, 88 blocks, 10440 apartments, built 1986-1991, famous for HMS Whampoa ship-shaped shopping center.

South Horizons, 34 blocks, 9812 apartments, built 1991-1995

Kingswood Villas, 58 blocks, 15836 apartments, built 1992-1997, but is usually considered 7 separate estates, as there are roads dividing the development.

LOHAS Park will be the biggest private estate, first phase opened in 2009 and is scheduled to be completed in 2015, having 21500 units.
Built year and number of units sourced from Centadata.

There is some doubt which developments can be called estates, since numerous other developments containing more than one block were built before 1969 and are not considered “estates”.

Typical private flats are slightly smaller than public housing in similar period.

Accurate statistics are impossible to be made, since Hong Kong real estate is very diverse, in the same district same developer built in same decade multiple estates with very different apartment sizes. Transactions listings do not show size of flats built before 1980 (why?), but apparently 1960s flats are larger than 1980s which seems to be the smallest.

1980s typical sizes were 3-room 30-35 sqm (dominant) and 4-room 45-55 sqm.
2000s typical sizes are 3-room 40-45 sqm, 4-room 55-65 sqm (dominant), and some 5-room appeared.
At this moment I cannot estimate the 2000s and 2010s trends, if the flat sizes grow or shrink.

The units facing to sea or other good landscape, are sometimes larger, even if using apparently same apartment layout.

Of course there are numerous luxury apartments, much larger than typical flats, commonly in blocks with 2 to 4 units per floor. These nearly always are 4-room and 5-room, not matters if are 100 sqm or 500 sqm penthouses, the room sizes vary very much.

1960s-1970s private housing estates

Point mouse on photos to see building name and year!
Tak Po House Ngai Hing Mansion
Yuet Wan Street Chung Wui Mansion 8 old blocks

1980s private housing estates

 Beverly Villas Whampoa Garden City One
Hong Kong Parkview Wonderland Villas

2000s private housing estates

Sorrento Bel-Air No 8 Banyan Garden
Manhattan Hill Ocean View Repulse Bay House
Fairmount Terrace & L'Hotel The Masterpiece Grand Waterfront Palazzo Grand Waterfront

Cruciform blocks – smallest & largest

One of most common private block types is the cruciform with 8 units per floor, it have the biggest efficiency, the block size vary, most blocks ranging from 20×20 meters to 32×28 meters. Some may have 6, 10 or 12 apartments per floor.

Garden Rivera vs Woodlands Crest
Garden Rivera Woodland Crest

Garden Rivera (1984) is my favorite example of the thinnest cruciform blocks. Block size 20 by 19 meters, 3012 sq ft in total / 280 sqm. 8 flats per floor, all 3-room, 368-385 sq ft gross area / probably around 242-269 sq ft saleable area (23-25 sqm). It contains some of the SMALLEST 3-room apartments in the world! See Garden Rivera floorplan and interior photos. Interior video.

Later I found numerous other blocks having similar or even smaller size, but some may not contains only 3-room apartments. Examples:

Hang Shun Building (unknown year), block size 20 by 17 meters, flat size 313-323 sq ft gross, all 3-room, see Hang Shun floorplan.

Smithfield Terrace (1986), block size 19 by 18 meters, flat size 252-377 sq ft gross, 2-room and 3-room, see Smithfield Terrace floorplan.

Fortune Court (1985), block size 18 by 17 meters, flat size 282-325 sq ft gross, see Fortune Court floorplan.

Full Wing Building (1984) beat all others, block size only 18 by 16 meters, flat size 263-329 sq ft gross area. No floorplan exists, just interior photos.

Green Leaves Garden (1987), another remarkable thin cruciform blocks with 8 units per floor, 24 by 20 meters, contains the SMALLEST 4-room apartments found so far, 510 sq ft gross area / 435 sq ft saleable area (40.5 sqm). Floorplan and photos.

Largest examples of cruciform blocks:

Parkside Villa (1997), 38 by 36 meters. See Parkside Villa floorplan and photos.

Woodland Crest (1996), 40 by 40 meters. See Woodland Crest floorplan and photos.

Royal Ascot (1995), some blocks are 42 by 42 meters. See Royal Ascot floorplan and photos.

The Belcher’s (2000), largest cruciform block with 8 units per floor, up to 46 by 46 meters. See Floorplans and photos.

Uncommon blocks, crazy buildings and curiosities

The Merton website (now dead) showed a floorplan with all internal dimensions, SEE YOURSELF how small apartments are in Hong Kong, calculate yourself the net area (if you are lazy, it is 33 sqm for 3-room). Floor plan for entire block: Tower 1 and Tower 2.

The Harbourside, contains one of the smallest NEW apartments in Hong Kong. 241 sq ft gross area. What is the net area? What you can fit in it? Guess yourself… The Harbourside floorplan.

Yuppie Tel (1991), huge stairwell and 2 tiny apartments per floor (145 sq ft saleable), floorplan.

Pik Wah Building (1964), old and tiny apartments, 180 sq ft gross, 130 sq ft saleable, photos (if any unit is currently available for sale).

One Prestige (2018), new tiny apartments, smallest being 163 sq ft net, floorplan.

Hong Kong also contains numerous buildings with one apartment per floor. Do not think that all are luxury apartments. Someone owned a 8-meter wide piece of land and decided to built a skyscraper on it! Since even for a single apartment, you need a staircase with 2 access points, the staircase may be occupying half of block floor area! Examples:

Seng Fai Building (1997), 552 sq ft gross, see SengFai floorplan.

Profit Nice Mansion (1999), 333 sq ft gross / 222 sq ft saleable, no floorplan found.

But Fullic Court (1995) is the absolute crazyness of narrow building! 360 sq ft gross, 197 sq ft saleable… you MUST SEE the Fullic Court floorplan!!

Do you know more buildings with one apartment per floor? Share with us! Leave a comment! I want to make a collection of floorplans of narrow tall buildings.

Hong Kong aerial and panoramic views

Enjoy breathtaking panoramas over Hong Kong towers!
Selection of photos found via Google Earth on Panoramio in 2011. More photos to be added… when I have time to dig for more photos (maybe next year, let’s wait until more people add photos on Panoramio).

Hong Kong Island

Victoria Harbour
Concord, Harmony and New Cruciform Aberdeen
Hennedy Town Hong Kong crowded

Kowloon

Kowloon Kowloon

Tuen Mun New Town

Butterfly Estate

Tai Po New Town

Tai Po New Town

Tseun Wan New Town

Tseun Wan New Town

Shatin New Town

Shatin New Town Shatin New Town

Districts: Central & Western, Wan Chai, Eastern, Southern, Yau Tsim Mong, Sham Shui Po, Kowloon City, Wong Tai Sin, Kwun Tong, Kwai Chung & Tsing Yi, Tsuen Wan, Tuen Mun, Yuen Long, North, Tai Po, Shatin, Sai Kung & Tseung Kwan O, Islands, Marine

Gross floor area, Saleable floor area, and efficiency explained

Internal floor area is the room space between face of walls.

Saleable floor area includes full thickness of external walls, half thickness of walls shared with other units, internal walls, as well as balconies, but excludes bay windows.

Gross floor area also include a sharepart of common areas (lifts, staircases, corridors) so it should not been taken in serious.

The efficiency (Saleable floor area) is usually 75-85% of Gross floor area, higher value for the blocks with bigger apartments and for low-rise blocks, since the common area of a blocks with a given number of units per floor is approximately same for regardless of apartments size.
More details about what is gross floor area and efficiency here and here.

Apartment buyers are probably interested in Internal floor area, it is even smaller, the percentage of this from Saleable area varies much, as newer and taller buildings require thicker walls, take a look how thick are the walls of The Masterpiece. Higher floors may have thinner walls so larger rooms.
BEWARE… most, if not all private developers, as well as all real estate websites, publish Gross floor area as primary value of apartment size, confusing people. An estate may have a single apartment type (all apartments with same saleable floor area) but different gross floor areas because some blocks have fewer apartments per floor and the common area had to be divided by fewer apartments.

We cannot make a law to force developers to quote the Saleable floor area and put an END of this annoying confusion????

Why are Hong Kong apartments small?

One possible explanation: original Hong Kong was about 100 square kilometers, including the Hong Kong island and the tip of Kowloon Peninsula south of Boundary Street, comprising mostly mountainous terrain, until the 950 square kilometers of New Territories was leased, despite that this lease happened in 1898, people keep concentrating in the original area. Most of New Territories was (and some still are) rural, only the nearby area north of Boundary street was urbanized and became New Kowloon. The “New Towns” built beyond mountains, spaced away from original city, appeared only since 1970s.

Another explanation: traditionally old Hong Kong apartments had just one room for all, living, dining, sleeping, completed by a small kitchen and a small bathroom. Bedrooms appeared later, they are not used for other purpose than sleeping, so they can be small as 4 sqm, saving apartment area for having a large living room. Most older public housing floor plans don’t show other internal walls than the kitchen and bathroom ones. I guess that were sold without internal walls and owners who like to have separate bedrooms, had to built themselves? However all apartments were designed with a pre-designated number of bedrooms.

OK… now they have plenty of flat land in New Territories, why they KEEP building tiny apartments? Is this a fashion? conservative chinese, corrupt government or mafia of private developers?

Cost of construction includes land acquisition, lift, fittings, common areas, etc. these are more expensive than walls and floor slabs. I don’t think that a 25% increase in apartment size would raise cost of construction with more than 5%. I noticed many private estates with long and narrow apartments, big spaces between buildings, they could have designed slightly bigger apartments without any increase in block length or reduce the number of apartments in estate.

According my research, today apartment sizes grown about 20% since 1980s (I need more research to see today trends), but grown not enough, Hong Kong STILL holds the record of smallest average apartment size in the world.

However, I ask for explanations from someone that lived in Hong Kong for many years!

ANSWER (thanks to EL left comments below): each piece of land is sold with a max allowed gross floor area, but the number of apartments is not limited. The government do not release enough land to cope the demand for apartments, then most developers try to fit as many apartments as possible in the gross floor area. This is why most apartments are small, while the several big ones are sold at much bigger price per square feet.
The bay windows, if are at least 50 cm from floor and ceiling, and max 60 cm extrusion from outer wall face, are excluded from gross floor area. So since 1980 most developers provide extruded bay windows to create extra (but unusable) space in apartments, creating the nickname “Hong Kong – City of bay windows“.

Hong Kong property price trends

Hong Kong Residential Price Index

Hong Kong statistics

Overall statistics:
Per total, 53% of housing are owner-occupied.
Is hardly for me to make estimation about the average apartment size in Hong Kong or about the ratio sqm per person, due to lack of detailed statistics about housing system, high income inequality, many people living in extremely small 1-room apartments, illegally-divided apartments, as well as boathouses, caged homes, rooftop huts and other forms of inhumane homes.

Public housing:
Public Rental Housing (called Estates) have flats usually 20-60 sqm, but a small number of flats are even 8 sqm (internal floor area).
Home Ownership Scheme (usually called Courts) have flats usually 30-60 sqm but a small number of flats are 19 sqm (saleable floor area).
Private Sector Participation Scheme (usually called Garden or Terrace) have flats usually 35-70 sqm (saleable floor area).
Tenants Purchase Scheme are usually 20-65 sqm, but a small number of flats are even 8 sqm (which floor area?).
The biggest public flats are located in Melody Garden and Neptune Terrace, being 80 sqm (saleable floor area).
PRH and non-purchased TPS flats houses 31% of population, while HOS, PSPS and TPS houses 17% of population.
As 2011, Housing Authority have exactly 400 estates under management, of which 204 PRH/TPS and 196 HOS/PSPS.

According Housing Authority Annual Report 2010, as 31 march 2010 were 703608 PRH flats and 437184 of HOS/PSPS/TPS flats.
PRH flats comprised 679822 households, average of 2.95 people, 12.6 sqm per person. This means average flat size of 36.5 sqm.
They do not provide information about how many people lives in HOS/PSPS/TPS flats but I estimate their average flat size around 45-50 sqm.

Private housing:
Compromises Private Estates (aka condos) and stand-alone buildings, as well as villas and village houses. Flat sizes are sometimes even smaller than Home Ownership Courts, since most flats are aimed to same group of low-income people like public housing, and private developers are desperate to fit as many units is possible in the permissible gross floor area. The difference are the facilities: swimming pools, security guards, etc.

There are NO official statistics about average size of private housing. No wonder that may be under average HOS flat size.
Old apartments (1960s) are bigger than today ones, many of them were subdivided illegally into 10-15 sqm units or even smaller. Since this is illegal, nobody track the size of them.
According this source, over 90% of Hong Kong families today live in homes smaller than 700 square feet (65 sqm).
Some statistics about private housing, especially about prices, counts only apartments less than 70 sqm. Probably that is the step over which price per square foot increase like crazy.
Some private developments contain apartments big as 200-500 sqm, they being some of the most expensive apartments of the world. Example: Most expensive in June 2008, Most expensive in Oct 2009.

Explanation of Gross and Saleable floor areas!

Distribution of Population by Type of Housing

Year (as 31 march) 2000 2005 2010
Mid-year Population 6,665,000 6,813,000 7,061,000
Public Permanent Housing 50.7 48.5 47.5
– Rental Flats 35.1 30.1 29.7
– Subsidized Sale Flats 15.6 18.4 17.8
Private Permanent Housing 47.9 50.6 51.6
Public Temporary Housing 0.1
Private Temporary Housing 1.3 0.9 0.9

Land Domestic Households

Year (as 31 march) 2000 2005 2010
Public Permanent Housing 47.8 46.4 46.5
– Rental Flats 33.3 29.8 30.1
– Subsidized Sale Flats 14.5 16.6 16.4
Private Permanent Housing 50.5 52.4 52.4
Public Temporary Housing 0.1
Private Temporary Housing 1.6 1.3 1.1

Average Domestic Household Size

Year (as 31 march) 2000 2005 2010
Public Permanent Housing 3.5 3.2 3.0
– Average household size in Public Rental Housing 3.5 3.1 2.9
– Average Living Space per Person in PRH estates 10.4 sqm 11.7 sqm 12.6 sqm
– Average PRH flat size (calculated) 36.4 sqm 36.3 sqm 36.5 sqm
– Average household size in Subsidized Sale Flats 3.5 3.4 3.2
Average household size in Private Permanent Housing 3.1 2.9 2.9
Average household size in Public Temporary Housing 2.3
Average household size in Private Temporary Housing 2.7 2.3 2.4

Stock of Permanent Residential Flats

Year (as 31 march) 2000 2005 2010
Overall 2115 2408 2537
Public Housing 1016 1096 1135
– HA PRH Flats 651 661 674
– Housing Authority Interim Housing Flats 4 8 5
– Housing Society Rental Flats 33 33 34
– Housing Authority Subsidized Sale Flats 310 368 376
– Housing Society Subsidized Sale Flats 19 18 17
Private Housing 1099 1312 1401

Source of above data: http://www.housingauthority.gov.hk/hdw/content/document/en/aboutus/resources/statistics/HIF2010.pdf.
Updated data for 2012: http://www.housingauthority.gov.hk/en/common/pdf/about-us/publications-and-statistics/HIF.pdf.

Note: instead of updating (replacing the numbers) of the above table, I think about making a new larger table, based by people’s feedback

What data are you looking for? Please leave comments and suggestions!

Hong Kong housing database

Hong Kong Housing DatabaseHong Kong Housing Database was my first major project done for a customer rather than from personal interest / hobby.

Why I made it? Actually I started in early 2011 by making voluntarily a database for public housing estates, for my personal research. Few months later, an insurance company saw it and contacted me asking me for details regarding private apartment sizes in each district, so I voluntarily offered to extend my database to private estates too. When I realized how much effort it takes, I asked for some $$, but they never paid me… so I stopped working and never gave them the extended database, and after one year I published it on website so anyone else can buy it.

The database being mixed from 2 sources, is a bit messy. I will finalize database and update it if needed, when I find a customer paying for my effort.

At the moment I stopped working the database was complete for public housing, all 400 Housing Authority estates, all 48 Housing Society estates, and 1300+ private developments (all estates and most important individual buildings), it contains, block types, number of blocks, number of apartments and their flat size range, also an incomplete list of demolished estates (please contribute if you know any other demolished estate not listed in it!). FREE sample include biggest 92 private estates.

In 2016 I created a new database sourcing data from Centadata only.
This database is CLEAN and 100% COMPLETE, but do not contains so many details like the previous database.
If you need update to the current year, please ask!

 

Original database

Public housing: Housing Authority 400 estates and Housing Society 48 estates source: their websites.
Private housing: 1300 estates – source of data: Gohome and Centadata websites combined.
100+ hours of work, made in 2011.

Buy & download

Free SAMPLE

New database

Public and private housing, source of data: Centadata website.
~4 hours of work, made in September 2016.

Buy & download

Free SAMPLE

Most beautiful HDB

I explored all estates of Singapore via Google Earth and screened several HDB blocks with distinctive architectural styles. The voting results may influence the future of apartments designed by me.

Vote the most beautiful HDB blocks!
Vote for best architectural style. DO NOT vote for tallest, newest, best location, etc.
You can vote multiple images.

Bedok Reservoir blk 633-649
Lots of squares and decorations

Bukit Panjang blk 607-624
White with blue splashes

Choa Chu Kang blk 469-474
White & brown

Jurong East blk 20-23 (Teban Vista)
White, orange, green vertical diversity

Pasir Ris blk 501-503
Red with double white stripes each floor

Punggol blk 632-636 (Edgedale Green)
Simple design with white squares

Punggol blk 195 (The Periwinkle)
Metal bars in lower part of windows

Sembawang blk 467-469 (Blue Riverview)
Rounded block with white and blue only

Sengkang blk 272-273 (Atrina)
Modern simplity

Tampines blk 497
Beige columns ending in horizontal lines

Tiong Bahru blk 126-127 (Kim Tian Green)
White & yellow vertical monotony

Woodlands blk 685-687
Modern mix of geometry and colors

Poll Maker

See also: previous poll results (351 votes in 2012-2015)
Large amount of votes towards Pinnacle & Duxton, showing that people are voting for best locations and not for architectural styles as this poll is intended. Due to this reason I removed Pinnacle when I remade the poll in 2015.

Most beautiful houses

I explored all corners of Singapore via Google Earth and screened the best houses I saw, a variety of bungalows, semi-detached and terraced houses. Do you know other houses? Tell me the address and I may add in the poll. The voting results may influence the future of houses designed by me.

Singapore houses are the most beautiful in the world. Due to country size, only few people, the rich class can afford a landed property. Terraced houses have usually 4-5-6 bedrooms and costs 2 to 5 million SGD (1.5 to 4 million USD), depending of location, while bungalows can be over 10 millions.

Vote the most beautiful HOUSE!
Vote for best architectural style. DO NOT vote for tallest, newest, best location, etc.
You can vote multiple images.

Changi Road
American-styled houses

Da Silva Lane
Modern brick & green

Jalan Tari Payong
Oversized decorative elements

Kew Walk
Neoclassic design

Lorong Marzuki
Neoclassic design with large balconies

Pasir Panjang Hill
1990s stepped housing

Penaga Place
Modern house with bay windows

Phoenix Road
White design with oversized windows

Sennett Drive
Not sure how this style is called

Swiss View
Roman Empire-inspired house

Wak Hassan Drive
Another modern house

Wilkinson Road
Postmodernist house with oversized
cantilevered roof and balconies

free poll

See also: previous poll results (78 votes in 2012-2015).
I removed the 2 worst-voted houses when I remade the poll in 2015.

Most beautiful condo

I explored whole Singapore via Google Earth and screened several condos, but there are so many condos… I do not know which ones to choose for posting there and let people to vote. You can come with suggestions! The voting results may influence the future of apartments designed by me.

Vote the most beautiful CONDO!
Vote for best architectural style. DO NOT vote for tallest, newest, best location, etc.
You can vote multiple images.

Arcadia Garden
1980s condo with stepped terraces

Bedok Court
1980s condo with very complex facades

Chelsea Lodge
Red & white design inspired from American townhomes

Costa Rhu
Variable roof levels

Newton Suites
Ultra-modern architecture with a bit too much black

Stafford Court
Reminds of Roman Empire architecture

Sunrise Gardens
Red & white vertical diversity

Thomson 800
Beige neoclassic design

Thomson Euro-Asia
Postmodernism masterpiece

Poll Maker

See also: previous poll results (119 votes in 2012-2015).
I removed few condos and added other condos when I remade the poll in 2015.

Caesar 3

Caesar III CoverCaesar III is one of my favorite games. I got the demo version in 2000 and I loved it, but unfortunately I could not get the full version until 2005. I played it a lot in 2005-2006, then in 2008, and a little since October 2011, the moment in which I launched this fan page. But in 2012 the business forced me to quit games.

I played all career scenarios, but what I like most is the free scenarios (city construction kit), where I tried to built the largest city possible on each map. I heard about other city-building games such as Pharaoh and Zeus only in 2007, too late to enjoy them. Anyway, Caesar 3 is the BEST game.

Check this useful Caesar III .XLS table made by me in Excel, containing house evolution, empire locations, best city layout plans and more.
Do you want to download any .sav file? Contact me and I will send you.

Biggest Caesar3 cities – Maps from City Construction Kit

CorinthusCorinthus
September 2005
Population 10100
Typical 2005 design, inefficient infrastructure, excessive intersections made to use every corner of map, but this worsened walkers and required a lot more buildings.
CorinthusCorinthus
Remade in October 2011
Population 16300
Total new design, farmland and sea coast optimized, road infrastructure reduced at minimum possible, roads at 6 squares apart and grouped houses up to 3 squares beyond roads… 60% more population.
CarthagoCarthago
Made in 2005, improved in 2009
Population 24300
CarthagoCarthago
Remade in may 2012
Population 43600.
Widespread famine, as the farmland is insufficient, and fires are frequent.
LindumLindum
January 2008
Population 24000.
LondiniumLondinium
Second attempt made in January 2008
Population 25800
LondiniumLondinium
Third attempt made in October 2008
Population 30000+
Improved in 2011
Population 35500
Some houses are non-grouped so further improvement is possible.
MediolanumMediolanum
Made in 2006.
Population 12800.
Pretty good design for its time, but too many elite buildings, academies and colloseums eats precious land.
MediolanumMediolanum
Remade using new skills in October 2011.
Population 19900
Farmland and housing land optimized.

Rio de JaneiroRio de Janeiro (map downloaded from caesar3.heavengames.com)
Made in November 2008
Population 32800
Many building stopped working, fires appeared everywhere in the city, no matters how many prefectures I built, in certain areas none got employees.
ToletumToletum
Made in September 2005
Population 19800

ToletumToletum modified
First attempt in February 2008
Population 21500. Farms could not sustain more population. (removed invasions and the earthquake which smash the precious farmland)
ToletumToletum modified
Second attempt, March 2008
Population 24500.
Farmland usage and road network highly optimized. I wasn’t aware that most fishing wharf were not working, fishing boats can’t navigate due to a piece of land.
ToletumToletum modified
Remade using new skills in May 2012
Population 31500.
Navigation problem solved by serving wharfs from one half of water with shipyard then built wharfs in the other side of water.
TarracoTarraco
Made in 2005
Population ~17000.
Tarraco
Remade in February 2012.
Population 31500.
Again employment problems, pottery problems appeared since population 20000.
ValentiaValentia
Made in 2005
Population ~15000, never finished (did not built up to data limit)
Valentia
Remade in February 2012
Population 45000
Little pottery problems but everything else is OK.

See my evolution!!

You can notice in my early cities, I misunderstood the principle of the game “make as few intersection is possible” and I made all cities in grid network (I am sure that most beginner players did this mistake), straight roads long as much is possible, even worse, numerous short roads were added at edge of land (sea, mountains), to improve land usage and use every corner of map, rather than improve road network efficiency. Not only roads were grid but also I placed fountains every 4 houses, each fountain had a prefecture and a engineers post on each side (same layout used on Northern provinces with no fire risk = prefectures are not necessary), making the city to look beautiful, but reducing the chances for houses to merge. Residential and community zones were well defined.

I always let the houses as they appeared, merged or non-merged. I played until reached Data Limit of 2000 buildings, resulting at most 20000 people, then quitted and started another.

Since 2008 I use a complex road network, curved, S-shaped roads and loops to cover more land without having intersections.

Since 2009 I started to demolish the houses that does not group and I built new houses elsewhere. The city size is now limited by the amount of farmland and its usage efficiency (distance to granaries).

Starting from 2011 I am trying to maximize merged houses, I build houses in in groups of 4, group by group, see if they merge, I use the space for community buildings, this is why you can see community buildings placed randomly in middle of residential area (example: Valentia).

Conclusion

Is very hard to raise population over 25000. Can’t understand how I put 30000 souls on Londinium in 2008. In february 2012 I found a .sav from someone that put 50000 people on Tarraco, using gatehouses, I decided to try in my classic style (all neighborhoods linked, no gatehouses), but reached only a little over 30000 because because of strange employment problems, many building stopped working due to “No one is living nearby”, even if they were surrounded by houses, fires appeared everywhere in the map, no matters how many prefectures I built, in certain areas none got employees (same problem like on Rio de Janeiro in 2008). I tried on Valencia too and got 45000 people, surprisingly, no employment problems! Did anyone know the cause?

Caesar III gives you messages about population milestones at 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 5000, 10000, 15000, 20000, 25000, then is quiet. The game was NOT designed to sustain cities with over 30000 inhabitants.

Caesar 3 Data limit

What limits the city size is the data limit of 1999 buildings on map. If you are asking for hacks to remove the data limit, I tell you that data limit cannot be removed.

Why do you want to remove the limit? You can win all scenarios without going closer to limit.

What will be the point of game without such data limit? You could build huge cities filling enormous map at an undesirable housing density, you will hate maps with large amounts of water, etc.

I am happy that the data limit exists. My point is to make largest city in terms of population with less than 2000 buildings.

Pottery problem

Large cities get strange pottery problems, workshops produce pottery but warehouses do not receive it. Seems that this is related by population living in houses demanding pottery and capable to evolve above Small casa, I do not get any other explanation why pottery appear again if I cut the houses’ food source.

Pottery problems in cities over 25000 inhabitants can be avoided by not supplying certain parts of city with pottery and keeping at Small Casa, leaving only certain zones supplied with pottery, zones which probably you want to rise to Luxury Palace.

Houses merging in groups of 4

The worst part of Caesar 3 is how the houses combine (or refuse to combine). When a game is started, the map generate a set of merging tiles.
Houses which are on merging tiles group of they are at same level of evolution, if they evolve differently, you can delete and rebuilt them, or just delete their water source, at tent level they have all the chances to group IF they are on merging tiles. If they still not group, means that tiles are not merging tiles, and you cannot do anything! See the screenshots, how I maximized the quantity of grouped houses!

he only way to “force” house merging is to raise them above level 11 (Large Insulae) which require 4 tiles. However houses cannot be kept stable to Large Insulae in an open city, but only on a small loop with no intersections (which can be done with gates), and when it devolve, it splits into four 1-tile Medium Insulae (or lower level) then regroup if are on merging tiles. Since my cities are built up to data limit, a 4-tile Large Insulae risk to devolve into a 1-tile Medium Insulae and lose 75% of population, thus I avoid Large Insulaes in my cities made after 2011.

Biggest Caesar 3 cities – maps designed by me

First Caesar 3 map by Teoalida designed for making highest population possibleI prefer to use Central Provinces. Desert provinces are too prone to fire and fountain coverage is smaller, while Northern Provinces although that have no fire risk and prefectures will be not necessary, they require much more farms to produce same quantity of food.

I do not try to raise houses to villas and palaces, as they have less population than large insulae and is hard to keep them stable. They are good only to raise prosperity rating and make money from taxes.

First city

After I played all original maps, reaching at most 25000 people, in november 2005 I wanted to design my own map using Caesar 3 Map Editor I planned the city in same grid-network, not only the roads were grid, but also fountains, prefectures and engineers. This severely prevented houses to group, population: only 31500.

Second and third city

In january 2008, I tried again, this time I designed a map with separate clusters, each cluster have own farms and is served by a rectangular loop road and the city have no intersections (except ones under Granary). All houses to be capped at Small Casa to avoid the need of industry, warehouses and a lot of extra buildings. Population over 40000.

Then I heard that I can control the city traffic using Gatehouses. in march I designed another map with gated residential neighborhoods connected to a central production zone. I also deleted some of the non-grouped houses until I reached a population of over 50000.

Second Caesar 3 map by Teoalida Third Caesar 3 map by Teoalida

What limits the population is the fucking houses that refuses to group. The single way to force houses to group is to upgrade them to Large Insulae. For this, I need to build industry and have pottery, furniture and oil.

Failed attempt to break the population recordFourth city – FAIL

OK, in 2009 I tried to design another map, each residential cluster have 6 fountains and one reservoir serve 2 clusters, 4 clusters are served by a central production zone. Residential clusters are 39×14 and can have a max population 4452 at Large Insulae. I made several tests to equalize production with consumption and see how big should be the industrial zone.

Final test, I succeeded to stabilize population at about 17500, then I built second zone of city, I could not reach 35000 because I got same fucking problems with pottery supply, causing most of houses to fell at Small Casa and population stopped growing above 28000-29000.

I halted wheat production, causing most of city houses to downgrade to Large Tent and population reduced to under 20000, this resumed production of pottery, then I resumed wheat production, causing the city population to boost at 31600 but soon they ran out of pottery and felt back to ~26000. See screenshot at the population peak!

Suggestion to achieve high population: don’t build industry, use only Small Casas.

Greatest Caesar III map by Teoalida, population record 118848Fifth city

Since 2009 I planned to break the record, using Small Casa but a enormous map where I would have space to delete all single houses and keep only grouped houses. I spent dozens of hours for testing walkers path distance and the best road layout. I estimated that I can reach a population of at least 110.000. Due to lack of time for games, I did not made the final city until february 2012. Sorry for delay.

I used a northern province to avoid need of prefectures, I checked Rome supplies wheat (a normal city should be made with farms, but this time I just wanted highest possible population).
I divided the map in 8 road loops each one surrounding two reservoirs, 8 fountains per reservoir.
Due to building data limit, 6½ loops are built. 13 reservoirs, 104 fountains, and unemployment ratio 95%. Probably can be improved but only slightly.

Gods were turned off and money cheat was used (in c3_model.txt I set a -$10000 negative price for a building.

To get as many houses grouped is possible, I built houses one by one, starting from corners of area covered by each fountain, towards the fountain. I waited people to occupy their tents and deleted all houses that refused to group. I kept entire city to Tent level until I reached about 100 buildings left until Data limit. Only at this stage, I built the reservoir and the public buildings to raise the tents to Small Casa.

Took about 10 hours to build the city, 300 in-game years passed. Max population achieved: 118848 !!

Tiny Caesar 3 map by Teoalida for highest population

Biggest & best cities on each map size

Also, I tried to overcrowd the tiny map (40×40 squares) with the largest population possible. Final population 10800. The reason for which some houses are not Small Casa is the desirability. Made probably in 2009.

 

 

 

Optimal cities in Caesar III – maps designed by Teoalida

How much food is required for X population?

My tests made with cities with 10000-15000 population housed in Large Insulae revealed that for 10000 people is necessary ~50 wheat farms (central provinces) or ~65 wheat farms (northern provinces), 8 pottery workshops, 8 furniture workshops, 5 oil workshops, also one raw material per each workshop.

Note that larger is the city, lower is the food efficiency. In case the nearest granary is full, cart pushers go to a further distant granary and until they reach it, it may get filled by others.

I will publish more precise results, completed with screenshots, when I will succeed to stabilize the houses!

Attempt to build a perfect city

I am working for a stable city with all population in Large Insulae on a medium map, 20000+ people. Update: I finalized the city but is barely stable and don’t know why.

In March I tried a smaller city with 10000 people. Longer loops having gatehouses at both ends. 8 market per loop. But still unhappy by the results.
I realized that making smaller lops and building more markets increase house stability. Then no time for games.

Caesar 3 Perfect City designed by TeoalidaThe Perfect City for 6000 people

In May 2012 I got a great idea to make a windmill-shaped city rather than symmetric city, on a tiny map. In 2 corners I designed 2 loops each containing 36 Large Insulaes, in the other 2 corners I placed the farms. Surprisingly, the space remained in center of map fits perfectly 2 granaries and 6 warehouses. There are no houses in the production area, all labour is served by the houses at 2 squares apart roads Target population: 6048 people.

Results: for 6000 people you need 34 wheat farms (central provinces) / 40 wheat farms (northern provinces), 4 workshops of each type (pottery, furniture and oil). But the oil will be in slight overproduction. Trading prevent warehouses to get filled.

Central province: Perfect City.map file, year 60.sav file, year 200.sav file. First final test: I built one loop in first year then the second loop I built trough year 10 to 50 to reduce population age fluctuation. In the year 55-60 the city reached peak population, a little over 6000 but not 6048. Over next 140 years, the city lost 10% of population even if all houses supposed to be full.

Northern province: Perfect City.map file, year 65.sav file, year 200.sav file. I tested again, now on northern, slightly different layout. one extra market per block, for perfect housing stability. I built 18 houses in the first 2 years and the rest of 54 houses built from year 10 to year 64, this caused uniform age pyramid. The city lost 13% of population over next 135 years.

Refer at Caesar III .XLS file for the city plan. You can use it for testing purposes, for example delete all wheat farms and built vegetables farms.

Highest taxes level?

In a city where everything is good (enough food for all, no unemployment, all citizens praise the city), I succeeded to raise taxes to 18%. City sentiment was “People are annoyed / upset with you”, I constantly got messages “People disgrountled”, but nothing worse, no theft or riot unless unemployment reached to 5%. Due to fluctiations in population age, I had to constantly build and demolish academies (for 100 denarii you get 30 jobs) to reduce unemployment and prevent worker shortage. High taxes prevented immigration, but birth rate kept city population stable.

Emigration starts when unemployment is over 20% but it can be prevented by keeping taxes low. Wages should be Rome +5.

Caesar 3 population age and employment

People aged 0-15 are school age, 15-20 academy age, 20-50 working-class and 50-100 retirers.

When a new city is built, most of immigrants are working-class people, aged up to 55 years, they will make babies each new year, but if all housing is full, the babies will disappear. Cities such as the ones above, with all population in Small Casas and minimal of public buildings, reach an unemployment ratio of 80%. Even with this huge unemployment, after about 30-40 years they will ran out of workers, because of aging population (photo 1). Houses will devolve causing the city to lose even more workers, then a new group of working-class people will come and restore the city, but the unemployment will still fluctuate from 0% to 50% in the next 50 years. About 200-400 years are required to stabilize the age (photo 2).

A stable and healthy city will have after hundred years same number of people between 0-60 years and a constant decrease of people 60-100 years. Average life span is 80 years but only 3/8 will be workers, that’s TOO BAD. Sierra shall make the game with retirement age at 60 years old, and obviously, more workers required for each building.

Solution: if you are going to build a city that should remain stable for hundred years, simply do not built all at once, built it over a period of 40 years. If the city is already build, demolish a reservoir to cause houses devolve then built it back, working-age immigrants will come. Save game before, sometimes when houses devolve you will lose mostly working-age people rather than all-ages people.

Caesar 3 aging Caesar 3 population age

Another strange phenomenon is that the city is losing population over time. I had played two perfectly stable cities of 3000-5000 people for 1000 years and they lost 10-20% of population in this way, even if every house was supposed to be full. And they still consume same quantity of food like that when it was brand new.

Tips & Tricks + Useful info asked by visitors of my website

You can have an one-road city with actor colony at one end and theater at other end, all houses get entertainment access!

Walker control
You can use gatehouses to control random walkers, they do not pass through gatehouses. Only point-to-point walkers (immigrants, cart pushers, prefects going to extinguish a fire, entertainment people going from training center to venue) pass through gatehouses.

What is the purpose of oracles?
In my early years I did not understood their purpose, as they do not send walkers, so I placed a shitload of temples.
A oracle please 5 gods for 500 people, a small temple please one good for 750 people, a large temple please one god for 1500 people. So, if you have 1500 people in the city, to please all gods you need 3 oracles or 10 small temples (2 x 5 gods).
However a city with only oracles do not work. Only temples provide house access to religion.

Connecting roads with gardens
I downloaded some cities and noticed some roads being broken by 1 tile of garden. My experiments did not revealed the purpose, the gardens are threaten as roads by all walkers. Does anyone know the purpose?

Caesar 3 map sizes
Tiny map – 40×40
Small map – 60×60
Medium map – 80×80
Large map – 100×100
Huge map – 120×120
Enormous map – 160×160

Have questions? Want more tricks? Just ask me!