Web Analytics Made Easy -

– Map of HDB blocks –

Use a computer (not phone) for best experience. Open map on full screen. Click each dot on map to view year built, number of floors, number of units, upgrading programmes, typical floor plans, chances to get SERS, etc.

News 6 October 2019: I re-uploaded map in ZeeMaps, it does have a search box to zoom on desired blocks but I do not know if people will know how to use it correctly. Block colors are not definitive (should I instead start with blue for old blocks and end in red for new blocks?) Suggestions welcome!

Brown (123) = Blocks built by SIT (1927-1960).
Red (1925) = Classic blocks 1STD, 2STD, 3STD, 4STD, 1I, 2I, 3I, 4I, 3NG, 4NG, 5STD, 5I (1961-1981).
Orange (2466) = Classic blocks 3I, 5I, 3NG 4NG, 3S, 4S, 3A, 4A, 5A, EA / EM with 3 bedrooms (1980-1988).
Dark yellow (876) = Classic blocks 4A, 5I, EA / EM  with 4 bedrooms (1987-1991).
Yellow (1691) = Blocks with centralized refuse chute and lifts stopping at every floor 4A, 5I, 5A, EA / EM (1991-1998).
Green (1470) = Blocks with household shelter (1997-2004), including SERS replacement blocks (1997-2005).
Cyan (781) = Blocks sold via BTO (2004-present) or SERS (2006-present) available on resale market.
Blue (756) = Blocks sold via BTO or SERS under minimum occupation period.
Pink (65) = Blocks sold via DBSS (2009-2015).
White (502) = Blocks under construction.

For SERS hunters: only (some of) brown and red blocks have potential for en-bloc (SERS), do not click other colors.

Google Fusion Tables map (will no longer work after 3 December 2019)

Blue = Blocks built by SIT (1927-1960).
Pink = Blocks built originally without lifts stopping at every floor and kitchen refuse chute, first series (1960-1982).
Red = Blocks built originally without lifts stopping at every floor and kitchen refuse chute, second series (1981-1993).
Brown = Blocks with centralized refuse chute and lifts stopping at every floor (1992-1999).
Yellow = Blocks with household shelter (1998-2007), including SERS replacement blocks (1999-2006).
Green = Blocks with household shelter sold via BTO (2005-present), DBSS (2008-2015), SERS (2008-present).
Cyan = Blocks sold via BTO under MOP or under construction with estimated completion up to 2019.
White = Blocks sold via BTO under construction with estimated completion 2020 or later.
Gray = Blocks sold via DBSS, SERS, SBF, under MOP or under construction with completion date unknown.

Looking to buy or rent a HDB flat? Contact my partner agentWilliam Chui
For the easiest way to get the best HDB bank loans, go to Finko’s home loan comparison.


The map is powered by HDB Blocks Database, an Excel file compiled by me manually took about 500 hours of manual work. If you want to use above map in your website, you can right click > View page source > copy embedding code.

The map is made using Google Fusion Tables, a FREE experimental application which I discovered in September 2017. Fusion Tables will be discontinued on 3 December 2019. I am thinking to move map to ZeeMaps (will cost me $19,95/month). If you have other suggestions please tell.

You can also search for HDB block information using HDB blocks drop down search.

Please report possible errors on map! (some blocks may have wrong floor plans, being added from my personal research).

– Map of private properties –

News 5 October 2019: I added new maps made with ZeeMaps that include search function and Google Street View

Click dots on map to see details about each property such as address, completion year, tenure, number of units, developer, etc.

Colored by completion year

Color legend
1960-1979 – brown (114 projects)
1980-1989 – red (361 projects)
1990-1999 – orange (671 projects)
2000-2004 – yellow (407 projects)
2005-2009 – light yellow (430 projects)
2010-2014 – green (538 projects)
2015-2019 – cyan (368 projects)
2020-2099 – light blue (78 projects)
Unknown – white (285 projects)

Looking for a new or resale condo? Contact my partner agent
William Chui

For the easiest way to get the best private property loans, go to Finko’s home loan comparison.

Colored by project type

Color legend
Apartment – cyan (1038 projects)
Bungalow House – brown (18 projects)
Cluster House – orange (83 projects)
Condominium – green (1589 projects)
Conservation House – white (1 project)
Corner Terrace – sunflower (8 projects)
Detached House – maize (40 projects)
Executive Condominium – dark green (46 projects)
Good Class Bungalow – pink/fuschia (10 projects)
HDB Apartment – blue (6 projects)
Semi-Detached House – red (100 projects)
Shop/Shophouse – white (1 project)
Terraced House – light yellow (272 projects)
Town House – yellow (13 projects)
Walk-up – light pink (26 projects)
Unknown – white (1 project)

Colored by project type (old map, will become inaccessible on 3 Dec 2019)

Color legend
Apartment – yellow (1038 projects)
Bungalow House – blue (18 projects)
Cluster House – pink (83 projects)
Condominium – green (1589 projects)
Conservation House – grey (1 project)
Corner Terrace – brown (8 projects)
Detached House – blue (40 projects)
Executive Condominium – cyan (46 projects)
Good Class Bungalow – blue (10 projects)
HDB Apartment – grey (6 projects)
Semi-Detached House – brown (100 projects)
Shop/Shophouse – grey (1 project)
Terraced House – red (272 projects)
Town House – brown (13 projects)
Walk-up – yellow (26 projects)
Unknown – grey (1 project)

Colored by completion year (old map, will become inaccessible on 3 Dec 2019)

Color legend
1960-1989 – blue (475 projects)
1990-1999 – pink (671 projects)
2000-2004 – red (407 projects)
2005-2009 – brown (430 projects)
2010-2014 – yellow (538 projects)
2015-2019 – green (368 projects)
2020-2099 – cyan (78 projects)
Unknown – grey (285 projects)

If you want to use above map in your website, you can right click > View page source > copy embedding code.

If you want data in Excel format for commercial use, you can buy the Condo Database. Data is sourced from PropertyGuru, which provide wrong GPS coordinates for several condos, this is why looking on map you may see condos with no clickable dot, example Rainforest and iNz Residence, their dots are 1300 meters west from correct location.

The map is made using Google Fusion Tables, a FREE experimental application which I discovered in September 2017. Fusion Tables will be discontinued on 3 December 2019. I am thinking to move map to ZeeMaps (will cost me $19,95/month). If you have other suggestions please tell.

Map of condos

HDB history and floor plan evolution 1930s – 2010s

4A (101 sqm)This page shows floor plans of ~100 most common HDB flat types and most representative layouts. Many other layouts exists, unique layouts with slanted rooms, as well as variations of the standard layouts, these usually have larger sizes.

Looking for certain town or flat type? Use Ctrl+F to search within this page.

Most searched floor plans: 1960s 3STD 3I 4I, 1970s 3NG 4NG 5I, 1980s 3S 3A 4S 4A 5A, 1990s 4A 5I, EA, 2000s 4A 5I EA, Maisonette, Jumbo, Pinnacle, Largest HDB flats
FAQ: age of HDB block? What is lease commence date? How I got floorplans? Looking for .DWG floor plans?

1930s, 1940s, 1950s – SIT era

Tiong Bahru pre-war vs post-war SIT blocks
Tiong Bahru pre-war SIT blocks Tiong Bahru post-war SIT blocks

Singapore Improvement Trust set up in 1927 and focused on infrastructure, it also built small scale public housing, such as Tiong Bahru (started in 1936) and Queenstown (started in 1952 and completed by HDB in 1960s). In 32 years, SIT built only 23,000 flats, housing 8.8% of Singapore population in 1959.

The SIT housing was similar with British housing, 2-storey terraced houses, 3/4-storey walk-up flats, 7/9-storey high-rise flats started being built in 1952 and one 14-storey block was built in 1956 in Queenstown. The blocks were built at just 10-15 meters apart, denser than HDB estates. List of SIT estates.

SIT floor plans

Pre-war Tiong Bahru blocks feature flats from 3-room to 5-room, you can see floor plans on https://tiongbahruestate.wordpress.com/2007/06/29/tiong-bahru-pre-war-floor-plans/ and https://tiongbahruestate.wordpress.com/category/uncategorized/

Post-war, SIT built mostly 2-room and 3-room, a small number of 4-Room flats were built at least in Alexandra North, Silat Estate and Tiong Bahru, but I never found any floor plan. To speed up construction, flats were downsized in 1955 and fewer 4-room were built. 1-Room flats on double-loaded corridor were introduced in 1958 in Kallang Airport Estate. SIT also built tenements (blocks with communal kitchen and toilets, opposite of “self-contained flats”), that can be built quickly for the victims of various fires.

SIT blocks with 2-Room / 3-Room Standard flat, from Tiong Bahru and Redhill
Tiong Bahru 2-Room Tiong Bahru 3-Room (77 sqm) Redhill Close 3-Room (63 sqm) Tiong Bahru 3-Room (88 sqm)

SIT also built terraced houses, two clusters survived: Jalan Bahagia (in Whampoa, 28 blocks, 200 units), Stirling Road (in Queenstown, 13 blocks, 84 units). Most units are 3-Room (originally 78 sqm) but on Stirling Road there are some 4-Room (99 sqm). Over time, the owners built additional rooms in front, rear, and side of corner units, expanding some houses to over 200 sqm according resale transactions.

SIT 3-Room Terrace House SIT 3-Room Terrace House

Some floor plans of rental flats are available on HDB InfoWEB under PPHS (whole block floor plans, no dimensions).

1960s – HDB beginnings

HDB was founded in February 1960, shortly after People Action Party won national elections of 1959. HDB continued construction of some SIT estates: Queenstown, Kallang Airport, St. Michael, Kampong Tiong Bahru, and launched new estates like Bukit Ho Swee, Brickworks, Alexandra Hill, Redhill, Henderson (in Bukit Merah); Bendemeer, Boon Keng, Kallang Bahru and Tanjong Rhu (in Kallang), Upper Changi Road aka Chai Chee (now part of Bedok), MacPherson (in Geylang), MacPherson Homes (in Toa Payoh).

On 13 February 1959 a fire started in Kampong Tiong Bahru, leaving 12,000 people homeless (source: NLB). SIT quickly cleared the area and built few 5-storey blocks with 1-Room flats and 9-storey blocks as well as terraced houses. A bigger fire in Bukit Ho Swee on 25 May 1961 left 16,000 people homeless, as coincidence HDB completed in September 1961 the Kampong Tiong Bahru flats started by SIT and moved the fire victims there, after few months of temporary housing in Queenstown. These fires helped HDB to gain popularity.

In Master Plan 1958 you can see numerous terraced houses (planned by SIT and never built) around Redhill and Whampoa. HDB changed housing typology to massive blocks with smaller flats and eliminated terraced houses.

HDB aimed to build 50,000 dwelling units in first 5 years, so a simple brutalist architecture was chosen, in contrast with the Art Deco and Modernist themes used by SIT. Kampong clearance started.

Queenstown was de facto first new town, but Toa Payoh New Town started in 1965 was the first officially named “New Town”), incorporating a town centre and several neighborhoods. Toa Payoh preliminary plan was published in SIT Annual Report 1958, including terraced houses and low-rise flats. Farmers that opposed government taking their land delayed construction for few years, enough for HDB to change plans to high rises.

The first blocks completed by HDB are Queenstown blk 45, 46, 49, 7-storey blocks styled like SIT.

Redevelopment of uneconomical SIT estates started in 1967, single-storey artisans quarters built by SIT in 1951-1953 at Henderson and Upper Aljunied were demolished and replaced by high-rise blocks.

1960s estates composed only by linear slab blocks (corridor style) in most common height of 10 storeys and usually with 12 units per floor, but several blocks were longer, plus 2-storey shophouses. Minimal distance between facades was not regulated, usually 15-30 metres.

Old photos from Bukit Ho Swee estate (built 1961-1964)
The 7-storey blocks in left side contains 1-Room Emergency flats.
Bukit Ho Swee Bukit Ho Swee

Old aerial views of Toa Payoh New Town (first phase built 1966-1973)
Toa Payoh Toa Payoh

1960s typical HDB floor plans

In first 5 years HDB built flats in proportion of 40% 1-room, 30% 2-Room, 30% 3-Room. The floor areas have broad range: 1-Room (23-33 sqm), 2-Room (35-45 sqm), 3-Room (50-70 sqm). 4-Room were introduced in 1967 at Henderson Road. Later in Outram Park and Toa Payoh (70-85 sqm). I estimate average size during 1960s around 40-50 sqm.

Standard flats (1/2/3/4-room) had WC and shower in same room.

Improved flats (1/2/3/4-room) were introduced in 1966, the 3/4-room having separate WC and shower, they also featured void decks.

Emergency flats (1/2-room on double-loaded corridor) were also built. I do not know how many emergency blocks were built, because only 5 blocks survived: blk 91, 92, 93 Henderson Rd , blk 1 Maude Rd, blk 2 Kitchener Rd (2-room, all rental). The typology with double-loaded corridor was used also for 1-Room Improved.

Tenements (flats with communal kitchen and toilet, opposite of self-contained flats), were also built, for example Bukit Ho Swee blocks 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, according iremember.sg blog (I do not know if these were all tenements or if were more).

1960-1970 slab blocks with 2-Room Standard (44-45 sqm), 3-Room Standard (50-55 sqm), 4-Room Standard (70-75 sqm)
Most blocks of this type were upgraded with utility rooms, some with bedroom extension including en-suite toilet.

1966-1980 slab block with 1-Room Improved (33 sqm)
The ONLY remaining 1-room home ownership block is blk 7 Telok Blangah Crescent, two more blocks did existed but got SERS: blk 309 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 1 and blk 33 Taman Ho Swee. All other 1-room blocks are rental. Some of them are 2 meters wider, flats 6096 mm long instead of 5486 mm, toilet is squarish and kitchen is L-shaped around toilet, having 2 windows (example blk 123 Bukit Merah View). No floor plans available, because HDB never provide floorplans for rental flats.
1I (33 sqm)

1966-1980 and  slab block with 2-Room Improved (44 sqm), 3-Room Improved (60 sqm), 3½-Room Improved (69 sqm)
A small number of 3I blocks were built in 1982-1986 with slightly different floor plan
Most blocks of this type were upgraded with 5-6 sqm utility rooms, these utility rooms vary in shape and size so that is why I posted here original floorplans without utility room.
2I (44 sqm) >3I (60 sqm) 3I (60 sqm) 3I (69 sqm)

1972-1980 slab block with 4-Room Improved (82-84 sqm or -88 sqm with kitchen extension), stairs for each two units.
Whampoa 4I (87 sqm) 4I (82 sqm)

JTC floor plans

Jurong Town Corporation established in 1968 and built 5 estates in parallel with HDB:
Taman Jurong, built 1964/1969-1974, most demolished in 1990s and 2000s). Earliest blocks were built by Economic Development Board in cooperation with HDB starting from 1964, then JTC took over in 1969.
Boon Lay Gardens, built 1974-1978, mixed with HDB, most demolished in 1990s and 2000s.
Teban Gardens, built 1977-1978, mixed with HDB, some demolished in 2000s.
Pandan Gardens, built 1978-1979, all survived.
Sembawang, built early 1970s, 7 blocks, demolished in 2004.
The 5-Room flats built by JTC feature 2 entrance doors!

JTC 3-Room JTC 5-Room JTC 5-Room

Anyone have a floor plan of the JTC 4-Room point blocks (zig-zag ones)? Last ones will be demolished in 2013.

1970s – HDB new towns

Concept Plan 1971 featured a ring of New Towns around Central Water Catchment and a provisional plan for two MRT lines to be built by 1992.

In 1970s seven new towns were started: Ang Mo Kio 1975, Bedok 1975, Clementi / West Coast 1977, Hougang 1974 (only several blocks), Marine Parade 1974, Telok Blangah 1973, Woodlands 1973 (Marsiling estate). Toa Payoh was extended (blocks 210-235).

In addition, small estates were started: Kallang Basin (1960s?) and St. George 1975 (in Kallang); Geylang East 1974, Haig Road 1975, Jalan Eunos 1976, Sims 1974 (in Geylang); Dover 1975, Ghim Moh 1975, Holland Village 1973 (in Queenstown); Farrer Road 1973 (in Bukit Timah), Hillview 1977 (in Bukit Batok, demolished in 2005), Teck Whye 1977 (now part of Choa Chu Kang), Lorong Lew Lian 1977 (in Serangoon), Sin Ming 1973 (in Bishan), Nee Son 1977 (now part of Yishun).

1970s generation estates were dominated by massive slab blocks, majority 10-16 storeys and usually with 14 or 18 units per floor, most were over 100 metres long, plus point blocks, majority 25 storeys, and 4-storey blocks with shophouses. Minimal distance between facades was 30 metres.

HDB also built Rural Centres, mini estates with <4-storey blocks and several hundred flats to house farmers: Changi Village (considered in Pasir Ris), Kranji / Lim Chu Kang (abandoned in 2001), Punggol Road End (in Sengkang area, demolished in 2005-2007), Seletar Road (in Serangoon area, demolished 2005), Seletar West Farmway (in Sengkang area, demolished 2004).

Ang Mo Kio (built 1975-1981)
Ang Mo Kio Ang Mo Kio

Clementi (built 1977-1984) / Telok Blangah (built 1973-1978), view from Mount Faber
Clementi Telok Blangah view from Mount Faber

Marine Parade point blocks (built 1974-1976)
Marine Parade

1970s typical HDB floor plans

In 1975 were completed the first New Generation flats: 3-Room (67 / 82 sqm) and 4-Room (92 sqm), compared with Improved flats, the NG flats feature en-suite toilet for master bedroom, with pedestal type WC, plus store room (source: Straits Times 29 Aug 1973). This article HDB Floor Plans 1930-present is copyrighted by www.teoalida.com.

Point blocks, taller than surrounding blocks and having only 4 units per floor, the first had 3-Room flats, 2 were built in 1970 on Mei Ling Street and 2 in 1971 on Bendemeer Road, followed by 4-Room Improved (84 sqm) point blocks in 1973 and 5-Room Standard point blocks in 1974.

First 5-room flats (117-125 sqm), Standard and Improved were completed in 1974, in point block form. Starting from 1976, 5-Room flats were offered also in slab block form. All 5-Room flats feature master bedroom with attached toilet with pedestal type WC.

By mid-1980s 2 with 3-Room, 26 with 4-Room and 239 with 5-room. Blocks with 4 units per floor continued to be built in late 1980s, but height similar with surrounding blocks made me to not include them in above figure.

3/4-Room Standard flats disappeared in early 1970s, Improved flats disappeared too in late 1970s. The average size rose from 60 sqm in early 1970 to 75 sqm in late 1970s estates.

Marine Parade was, and is still the most prestigious HDB estate, also the oldest HDB estate remained intact (no demolitions, no new blocks). Built in 1974-1976, it contains 7898 dwelling units in 56 blocks, slab blocks with 2/3/4-Room Improved flats plus 17 tower blocks, each with 96 units of 120 sqm 5-Room Standard flats. Average flat size: 76 sqm, a record for its time (today average size is a little bigger due to upgrading with utility rooms and many 3-room flats adjoined.

1975-1986 slab block with 3-Room New Generation (67 sqm), 3½-Room New Generation (82 sqm), and 4-Room New Generation (92 sqm), big kitchen
1975-1985 slab block with 4-Room New Generation (91 sqm), two units per staircase
3NG (67 sqm) 3NG (82 sqm) 4NG (92 sqm) 4NG (91 sqm)

1976-1980 slab block with 5-Room Standard (117 sqm), also 4-Room New Generation (89 sqm) at lift level
1978-1985 slab block with 5-Room Improved (121 sqm), also 4-Room New Generation (98 sqm) at lift level
5STD (121 sqm) 5I flat (121 sqm)

1970-1971 point zig-zag block with 3-Room Improved (72 sqm or 76 sqm with utility extension)
1973-1974 point block with 4-Room Improved (77-84 sqm)
3I (76 sqm) HDB 4-Room Improved flat (77 sqm) from block 53 Chin Swee Road HDB 4-Room Improved flat (91 sqm) inclusive living room extension

1974-1980 point block with 5-Room Standard (114-123 sqm)
1974-1985 point block with 5-Room Improved (117-121 sqm)
Some Standard flats have long master bedroom like Improved flats. Other flats have balcony at living room. I don’t know the real difference between Standard and Improved.
5STD flat (123 sqm) 5I flat (121 sqm)

See more 1970s floor plans

1980s – More HDB new towns

In early 1980s nine New Towns were born: Bishan 1984, Bukit Batok 1982, Hougang 1980, Jurong East 1980, Jurong West 1981, Serangoon 1983, Tampines 1981, Woodlands 1980 (integrating Marsiling estate), Yishun 1981 (integrating Nee Son), as well as small estates: Kaki Bukit 1985 (in Bedok), Bukit Purmei 1982 (in Bukit Merah), Ubi 1984 (in Geylang), McNair 1982 (in Kallang), Potong Pasir 1983 and Upper Aljunied 1982 (in Toa Payoh).

In the late 1980 four more New Towns were born: Bukit Panjang 1986, Choa Chu Kang 1987 (integrating Teck Whye), Nanyang 1986 (extension of Jurong West), Pasir Ris 1987, as well as Estates: Simei 1987 (near Tampines), Kembangan 1988 (in Bedok), Toh Yi 1987 (in Bukit Timah).

1980s towns were composed by slab blocks with 10-13 floors, usually with 10 or 12 units per floor, plus point blocks with 20-25 floors, but also many 4-storey blocks. After 1985 just few blocks were built with more than 13 storeys. Compared with previous decade, the blocks were arranged in more rigid patterns, with corners bend to give the precinct a sense of enclosure. Most 10-13 floors blocks were perfectly aligned to east-west direction to avoid sun, surrounded on east and west sides by 4-storey walk-up blocks. Minimal distance between facades was 24 metres.

Ground floor units were reintroduced, most 1980s high-rise blocks have few (usually 4) units at ground floor while rest of floor is void deck. Most 4-storey blocks do not have void decks.

Prefab block vs non-prefab blockIn 1980 first prefabrication contract was awarded, raising the construction ratio to about 190,000 flats built in 1981-1985, the record being 67,856 flats in 1984. Prefab blocks were built in 16 months, 20% faster than 20 months for normal blocks (source: Straits Times 1982).

These 1980s prefab blocks with load-bearing walls can be identified by being uglier, having simple floorplan, plain external walls (unlike normal blocks which have columns visible on facade and windows pushed back). Prefab flats have lower value than non-prefab blocks, hacking walls is not allowed except a door-size opening, ceiling leaks are common.

A confusing thing: today BTO blocks use prefabricated panels too, but does not look similar with 1980s blocks, construction time is double, 3-4 years, and internal walls can be hacked. Probably they were referring that in 1980s they made blocks entirely prefab, load-bearing prefab walls.

Rising home ownership left rental blocks empty. Most blocks with Emergency flats built in 1960s were demolished in 1980s and land was redeveloped into 3-Room to Executive flats.

The percentage of population living in public housing hit the all-time record of 87% in 1988-1990, construction ratio had to be reduced to 10,000 units per year in 1989-1991 to avoid oversupply, leaving some estates unfinished, for example Yishun 4xx with its 8 blocks surrounded by open space.

Jurong West 5xx (built 1981-1985) / Bishan neighborhood 1xx (built 1985-1987)
aJurong West 5xx (built 1982-1986) Bishan New Town neighborhood 1xx (built 1985-1988) viewed from Bishan Loft

Bukit Batok MRT line (built 1982-1989) / Hougang Central (built ~1989)
Bukit Batok New Town (built 1984-1985) viewed from The Jade Hougang New Town (built ~1989)

Bukit Panjang blocks 418, 419, 420 (built 1988) / Pasir Ris 4xx (built 1989)
Bukit Panjang blocks 418, 419, 420 (built 1989) Pasir Ris 4xx (built 1989)

1980s typical HDB floor plans

Along the 3/4-Room New Generation and 5-Room Improved, in 1981 were introduced Model A flats: 3-Room (75 sqm), 4-Room (105 sqm), 5-Room (135 sqm), 5-Room Maisonette (139 sqm), and in 1984 were introduced Simplified flats, 3-Room (64 sqm), 4-Room (84 sqm).

Executive Apartment / Maisonette (146-150 sqm) were introduced in 1983 and replaced 5-Room Model A flats, in addition of the 3-bedroom and separate living/dining found in 5A flats, EA and EM feature an utility/maid room. 80% of Executive units were Maisonettes and 20% were Apartments.

New types of 4-Room Model A, 5-Room Improved, Executive Apartments / Maisonettes were introduced in 1987, the 5-Room and Executive having 4 bedrooms instead of 3 bedrooms (plus utility room in Executive), (source: Straits Times 1984).

Multi-Generation flats were 3/4-Room Simplified blocks reconfigured into 3-bedroom + Studio (granny flat), having 2 entrances and an internal door that join flats. The granny flat was not used as intended so the concept was abandoned after building only 8 blocks in 1987: Bishan 137, 148, Tampines 454, 460, Yishun 605, 632, 633, 666 (source: Straits Times 1986 + Straits Times 1988).

Rising popularity of bigger units left HDB with many unsold small flats. Last 1/2-Room Improved were in 1985 (Tampines 441, 442, 466, 471, all rental). Last 3-Room Improved and 3/4-Room New Generation were built in 1986. Last 3-Room Model A was built in 1987. Last 3/4-Room Simplified was built in 1988. Few blocks of 3/4-room flats were converted into 5-Room and Executive flats, popularly called “Jumbo flats” (source: Straits Times 1989). Average HDB flat size for early 1980s estates is 90-100 square meters, and 120 sqm in 1991.

Despite that at least 10,000 dwelling units were completed each year, very few flats have leases 1990 and 1991. Number of flats with lease 1991 is about 6% of the number of flats with lease 1989 and 1992 according my analysis of resale transactions. A possible hypothesis is that HDB changed the purchase scheme and lease started later than actual completion date (can someone confirm?).

1981-1987 slab block with 3-Room Model A (73-75 sqm) and 4-Room Model A (105-108 sqm)
3½-Room Model A (88-90 sqm) exists but is so rare that I never found floorplan.
Website visitors reported that early 4-Room Model A have different floorplan, similar in shape with 4-Room New Generation with toilets near each other, but big as 105 sqm instead of 92 sqm.
3A flat (75 sqm) 4A flat (105 sqm) 4A flat (105 sqm)

1981-1985 slab block with 5-Room Model A (133-135 sqm), 2 units per segment
5A flat (133 sqm) 5A flat (133 sqm)

1984-1988 slab block with 3-Room Simplified (64 sqm), 4-Room Simplified (84 sqm) and 5-Room Improved (120 sqm)
A 4-room Model A lift-level version under 5-Room Improved should also exists.
3S flat (64 sqm) 4S flat (84 sqm) 5I flat (120 sqm)

1984-1988 slab block with 4-Room Simplified (84 sqm) and 4-Room Model A (104 sqm)
4S flat (84 sqm) 4A flat (104 sqm)

1982-1984 slab block with 5-Room Model A Maisonette (137-140 sqm, some -155 sqm) and 4-Room Model A (109 sqm) on corners (no floor plan found)
1983-1987 slab block with Executive Maisonette (144-147 sqm, some -160 sqm) and Executive Apartment (146 sqm) on corners
Many people asked me what is a 5-Room Maisonette or what is the difference compared with Executive Maisonette, the primary difference is the building year, because the two-storey Maisonettes were introduced earlier than Executive naming.
5A-M (139 sqm) EM (147 sqm) EA (146 sqm)

1987-1989 slab block with 4-Room Model A (104 sqm) and 5-Room Improved (121 sqm), some blocks have L-shaped corners, with 4-Room Model A (108 sqm) and 5-Room Improved (122 sqm)
4A flat (104 sqm) 5I flat (121 sqm) 4A flat(108 sqm) 5I flat (122 sqm)

1988-1991 slab block with 4-Room Model A (103-107 sqm) and 5-Room Improved (121-123 sqm), 2 units per staircase.
Except corner units, all units are 4A, units at lift level are similar with 1987-1990 blocks, but units at next level up are 4A too instead of 5I, with a huge balcony, units at remaining levels have a small balcony facing over staircase void and big balcony of below units. Staircase landing is at middle of block, making lift upgrading unfeasible. Many such blocks did not got LUP.
First blocks with lifts stopping at every floor were announced in in Straits Times 1989 and was completed in 1992, featuring staggering corridors to offer privacy to at least 50% of units and direct lift access to at least 80% of units.

4A flat 4A flat 5I flat (121 sqm) 4A flat

1987-1991 slab block with Executive Apartment (142 sqm) and Executive Maisonette (146 sqm)
EA (142 sqm) EM (146 sqm) EM (146 sqm)

1987 slab block with Multi Generation flats (151-171 sqm)

See more 1980s floor plans

1990s – The modern HDB blocks

In the early 1990s extensive construction was done in Choa Chu Kang, Hougang, Pasir Ris, Tampines, plus small additions in many other towns.

In the late 1990s three New Towns were started: Sembawang 1997, Sengkang 1997, Punggol 2000. Construction stopped for Tampines and Pasir Ris in 1995 (why?) but continued for Bukit Panjang, Choa Chu Kang, Hougang, Jurong East (Toh Guan Road), Jurong West (Pioneer area), Woodlands (Admiralty).

In mid-1990s majority of blocks range between 10-16 storeys, while blocks with household shelter built after 1998 range between 12-18 storeys, a small number of blocks have up to 30 storeys. Walk-up blocks almost disappeared. Unfortunately minimal distance between blocks was reduced to 18.3 metres (60 feet).

1990s was a decade of rapid development and innovation, raising the standard of living in public housing of Singapore to a level similar with private housing in other countries:

1992 – all blocks completed in 1992 have lifts stopping on every floor now and centralized refuse chutes (until 1993 some blocks have lift machine room at top floor so the flats at top floor do not have direct lift access).
1995 – introduction of yards for kitchens and by-panel main door.
1997 – introduction of household shelters and A/C ledges placed opposite of kitchen window, that double as second support for drying on bamboo poles.
2000 – first blocks competed in Punggol, a town built almost without corridor-facing flats (except 4 blocks and rental blocks built in 2010s) and green roofs on every MSCP.
2003 – last corridor-facing flats were completed (Sengkang blocks 207A-D).

1990s blocks are highly decorated and grouped in precints with distinctive styles, ground car parks were replaced by multi storey car parks, this allowed higher density, taller blocks, and more green space. All blocks are linked by covered walkways with car parks, bus stations and other facilities, so you can go anywhere regardless if the sun is too hot or is raining.

Since 1988 structural elements became thicker, 30 cm or more, rather than 20 cm in 1980s blocks, and more pillars per block. I do not know if this design is to withstand earthquakes.

Design & Build scheme was introduced in 1991, calling private architects to inject more variety into public housing designs (source), first project being at Tampines 230A-J (1992), featuring curved facades.

Design Plus followed in 1996.

Premium Apartments were introduced somewhere during 1990s, featuring better quality finishes, you get them in ready-to-move condition, with flooring, kitchen cabinets, built-in wardrobes? (compared with Standard Apartments where you get raw concrete waiting for your renovation).

Executive Condominium scheme was launched in 1995 (source: HDB Press Release 29 August 1995), subsidized private housing with facilities like private condos and same eligibility conditions like HDB (family nucleus, citizens and permanent residents, income ceiling). After 10 years since TOP date, all restrictions are lifted and even single foreigners can buy EC. See List of EC.

All premium contracts feature unique floor plan and corridor-facing flats are avoided. Since early 2000s standard contracts also became unique, putting the END to privacy issues of corridor-facing flats.

More and more land parcels were sold to private developers, making the percentage of population living in public housing to fall. Privatization of the former HUDC estates started in 1995 too.

The old HDB estates built in 1960s and 1970s suffered from dilapidated buildings, aging population and businesses moving out. On resale market Queenstown and Ang Mo Kio were cheaper than Pasir Ris, one of the cheapest towns today (source: analysis of Resale flat prices database). To prevent this, HDB launched Main Upgrading Programme in 1990 to improve pre-1980 estates, adding extra bathrooms for Standard flats, utility rooms, lifts that stop on every floor, redesigning facades for more modern look, building multi-storey car parks and converting surface car parks into green space, building covered walkways, etc. Interim Upgrading Programme was launched in 1993 for blocks built in 1980s, doing only small external upgrades.

Although small-scale redevelopment of old estates started in 1966, with demolition of single-storey artisans quarters, a massive demolition of 1-room rental blocks occurred in 1988-1989 and continued into 1990s, it freed up land to build new blocks with 5-room and Executive units in mature estates like Bukit Merah, Queenstown and Toa Payoh. The HDB Floor Plans 1930-present is copyrighted by www.teoalida.com.

Remaining rental blocks were converted, units adjoined, creating units up to 192 sqm (3-rm + 4-rm) unofficially called Jumbo Flat and sold with fresh leases from 1992 to 1996. Since 1994 flat owners were allowed to buy an adjacent flat and adjoin them, but only for 3-room or smaller flats, officially called Adjoined Flat.

Selective En-bloc Redevelopment Scheme was announced in 1995 to demolish selected owner-occupied blocks built up to 1980 and rehouse the residents in new blocks built in nearby location, to maintain community. Usually low-rise blocks with large spaces between them are selected for SERS while dense and tall blocks are selected for upgrading. HDB do not give you a replacement flat automatically, they compensate you at market value, then you need to buy yourself a subsidized flat in replacement blocks which can be smaller or larger, and pay the difference with CPF. Since 2004 the residents can enjoy SERS benefits buying new flats anywhere instead of being limited to the designated replacement blocks. Redhill Close (built 1955) was the first upgraded blocks (MUP 1992) to be selected for SERS in 2011. See List of SERS sites.

HDB stopped deciding the prices of new apartments based on construction costs, instead they decided based on market prices. Prices of resale flats and new flats entered in a vicious circle, rising 50% in just 6 months of 1993 and tripled to 1996, then felt down 30% to 1998 and continued to fall in non-mature estates by 2006, while in mature towns they started rising in 2002, fueled by upgrading programmes and agents lying people that all old blocks will get SERS.

Pasir Ris blocks 601-615 (built 1993-1994)
Pasir Ris blocks 601-615 (built 1995-1996) Pasir Ris blocks 601-615 (built 1995-1996)

Bishan neighborbood 2xx famous for roofs in various heights (built 1990-1991) / Jurong East – Toh Guan Road precinct (built 1996-1998)
Bishan neighborhood 2xx (built 1992) Jurong East - Toh Guan Road precint (built 1998)

Bukit Panjang 5xx neighborhood (built 1996-1998)
Bukit Panjang 5xx (built 1988) Bukit Panjang 5xx (built 1998)

1990s standard HDB floor plans (centralized refuse chute era)

1990s HDB flats provide high variety of layouts in various sizes: 4-Room Model A (100-108 sqm), 5-Room Improved (120-128 sqm), 5-Room Model A (133-137 sqm), Executive Apartment / Maisonette (142-150 sqm). Share of 5-Room and Executive flats increased, raising average size of new flats to over 120 square meters in 1991-1996 (even 130 sqm in 1994-1995 due to Jumbo converted blocks).

An experiment with 2-Room flats was done in 1994 (Pasir Ris block 142), having 2-room units on ground floor and 4-room on rest of floors.

1991-1996 block with 4-Room Model A (107 sqm) and 5-Room Improved (125 sqm), 4/5-room corner units also exists!
4A (107 sqm) 5I (126 sqm)

1994-1998 slab block with 4-Room Model A (100 sqm) and 5-Room Improved (120-123 sqm), some blocks have some smaller units named 4-Room Model A2 (90 sqm), some have different corners with 4-Room and 5-Room units, others have a wing with 2 units of 5-Room
4A2 (90 sqm) 4A (100 sqm)  5I (121 sqm)
4A (101 sqm) 5I (122 sqm) 5I (123 sqm)

1991-1996 point block with Executive Apartment (144-147 sqm), some blocks are L-shaped with 4 units per floor (3 or 4 different layouts), or U-shaped with 5 units per floor, some are longer like slab blocks and include corridor units, some blocks are combined with Executive Maisonette
1994-1996 blocks provide service balcony for kitchen

EA (147 sqm) EA (146 sqm) EA (146 sqm) Executive Apartment floor plan (146 sqm)

1991-1996 point block with Executive Apartment (146 sqm), 4 units per floor, two 146 sqm layout and other two different kitchen shape
1991-1996 atrium block with Executive Apartment (143-146 sqm), 6 units per floor, four 146 sqm layout and two 143 sqm layout
Executive Apartment floor plan (143 sqm) Executive Apartment floor plan (146 sqm)

Some 1980s and 1990s blocks feature Executive Maisonettes on topmost floor, popularly called HDB penthouses. They are located in Bishan (52 units, up to 199 sqm), Choa Chu Kang (12 units, 182 / 215 sqm), Queenstown-Strathmore (4 units, 192 sqm), (source), also unknown number of units in Hougang (176 sqm), Pasir Ris (189 sqm) and Tampines (143-147).
Bishan EM (163 sqm) Bishan EM (172 sqm)

The only HDB flat type designated as 5-bedrooms, from Tampines blk 498! (other HDB flats may have 4 bedrooms + family which can be turned in 5 bedrooms too)
Tampines blk 498 EM

Jumbo and Adjoined HDB Flats

Jumbo Flats: blocks taken back by HDB, flats joined into bigger flats and resold with fresh leases (1992-1996), they appear in HDB Resale Transactions as 4-Room Model A, 5-Room Improved / Model A, Executive Apartment and you cannot tell which of them are the jumbos.

Most Jumbo flats are in Woodlands and Yishun, few are in Tampines, Jurong East, and Ang Mo Kio (only smallest type from 2-room blocks). Their size vary from 90 sqm (2-Room + 2-Room) to 189 and 192 sqm (3-Room + 4-Room Model A), up to 7 rooms (5 bedrooms) and 3 toilets (source: Straits Times 1989). Unlike the 1980s Multi-Generation flats, Jumbos DO NOT have 2 entrances or 2 kitchens.

Adjoined Flat: flats joined by owner of a 3-room or smaller flat who bought adjacent flat, they appear in HDB Resale Transactions as 4-Room / 5-Room / Executive Adjoined Flat. Adjoined flats CANNOT be 3-rm + 4-rm, can have 2 entrances but most owners walled one entrance.

Two examples of (Jumbo) Executive Apartment created from one 3-rm with one 4-rm, and one example of converting three 3-Room Simplified flats into two 4-rm flats.

images lost being deleted from the websites originally sourced from

Two examples of 5-Room Adjoined Flat composed by two 3-Room Improved or by two 3-Room New Generation (NOT a Jumbo flat)
Adjoined flat Adjoined flat

Late 1990s floor plans (household shelter era) – First downsize of HDB flats

Another revolution is visible for the HDB flats completed since 1997: Block naming system (slab, point, atrium) has been abandoned. Flat naming system (Improved, Model A, etc) is no longer used in sale brochures, where a new naming system was introduced: Type A = 4-rm, Type B = 5-rm, Type C = Executive and the word Flat was replaced by Apartment. Resale transactions still show old flat type naming, and after 1998 all 4-rm are Model A and all 5-rm are Improved.

The flat sizes were standardized, slightly smaller: 4-Room (100 sendk), 5-Room (120 sqm), Executive (140 sqm). Percentage of EM was reduced compared with EA because of aging population who do not like stairs (source: Straits Times 1989) and the last maisonette was completed in 2000.

The 5-Room lost the study area, being just a 3-bedroom flat with larger living room. Executives are 3 bedrooms plus open study area that can be walled into a 4th bedroom. Average flat size 110 sqm.

A household shelter was provided in every flat, a store room with strengthened 30 cm walls and sealing door. Useless feature in my opinion, the shelter eats about 5 sqm, sometimes placed in middle of flat, hacking it is not allowed making floor plan less flexible (some exceptions in 2000s: all 1/2-rm rental blocks and some 2/3-rm sold blocks have a common storey shelter instead of household shelter inside flat).

1997-1999 block with 4-Room Model A (100 sqm), 5-Room Improved (120 sqm) and Executive Apartment (140 sqm), some blocks have 4-Room Model A2 (90 sqm)
4A (100 sqm) 5I (120 sqm) 5I (120 sqm) EA (140 sqm)

1997-1998 block with Executive Apartment (140 sqm) and Executive Maisonette (142 sqm).
Executive Maisonette with bomb shelter RARE, only 10 blocks!! (no floorplan found for EA pair)
EM (142 sqm)

Second downsize of HDB flats

All HDB flats completed since 2000 lost 10 sqm, their sizes being 4-Room (90 sqm), 5-Room (110 sqm), Executive (130 sqm, 125 sqm after 2003).

In attempt to reduce number of corridor-facing flats, the shape of blocks became complex, with many corners where 5-Room units are located. In 2002 and 2003 the number of 5-Room flats exceeded 4-Room, so the average flat size remained high as 105 sqm in 2000-2005.

1999-2003 block with 4-Room Model A (90 sqm), 5-Room Improved (110 sqm) and Executive Apartment (130 sqm in 1999-2001, 125 sqm in 2002-2003)
4A (90 sqm) 5I (110 sqm) EA (125 sqm)

See more 1990s floor plans

2000s – The decline

During 2000s, no other New Town or Estate were started. Construction continue only in existing estates. Taller and taller blocks were built in all estates not too close to airports to have height constraints. 30-storey complexes appeared since late 1990s, and the first 40-storey complex (Toa Payoh Towers) was completed in early 2005 (source).

The demand for new flats felt sharply after 1997 Asian Crisis. 2003 SARS outbreak and low immigration rate in early 2000s also slowed down the demand for flats. This happened right after the most prosperous decade, with 24,000-36,000 flats completed each year between 1994 and 2001. The queue, once 5 years long, vanished and left about 40,000 unsold completed flats in the year 2000, most of them being 5-Room and Executive.

HDB made a surprise decision in 1995 to close the registration queue for Executive flats, shortly after introduction of Executive Condominiums. Last EM was completed in 1998 and last EA in 2003, for people in the queue. Supply of 5-Room flats was also reduced and very few were completed in 2007-2009. A common misconception is that Executive Apartments were replaced by Executive Condos. Wrong, Executive Condos include flats in variety of sizes from 50 to 300+ sqm.

The Registration for Flat (queue selling system) was suspended in 2002 due to unsold flats. It was a good selling scheme because everyone was getting a flat, not just lucky ones like in BTO.

Walk In Selection has been introduced in March 2002 allowing people to book unsold flats anytime. It ended in February 2007 and was replaced by balloting exercises named Quarter-Yearly Sale of 2/3-Room flats and Half-Yearly Sale of 4-Room and bigger flats, which in 2010 were combined in Sale of Balance Flats, which sell leftover flats from past BTO and SERS projects, plus old flats repurchased by HDB. Because some flats are completed and you can collect keys immediately after balloting, so many people apply for SBF and in towns with low number of flats 100+ people battle for one flat.

Build-To-Order was introduced in April 2001 and became main supply of flats. Flats are offered for sale before being built. Tender for construction is called only if at least 70% of units have been booked (50% since 2011), otherwise the project is canceled and may be re-launched when will be more demand, with a different name and sometimes different design. The first projects enjoyed low interest, 5 of them being cancelled, but once Walk in Selection ended, BTO projects became oversubscribed, and since 2008 HDB launch 2 BTO projects every month. See list of BTO launches.

BTO system allow you to choose exact location of your home and you know when it will be completed, but when number of applicants exceed number of flats available, only lucky people are invited to book a flat, many people need to apply multiple times until get a good queue number.

BTO system prevent HDB to built surplus of units, but it created a lag in housing supply. HDB increased BTO supply from 9,000 flats in 2009 to 25,000 flats in 2011 but this was too late. Since Walk-in Selection ended in 2007, people who are eligible for new flats but do not accept the 3-4 year waiting time of BTO system, or fail at balloting, go to resale market, plus low number of flats completed in 2002-2010 decreased supply of resale flats, consequently resale flat prices doubled from 2007 to 2012 and the prices of new flats grew according to resale prices.

Design, Build and Sell Scheme is public housing built by private developers and sold by agents, their architectural design is similar with condos, but lack condo facilities such as guards, gym, pool, tennis courts, etc. First DBSS project was launched in 2006 and completed in 2009. DBSS land sales were suspended in July 2011 after the Sim Lian Group, developer of Centrale 8 (8th DBSS) set outrageous prices up to $880,000 for 5-Room. 13 land parcels were sold to private developers who built 8650 DBSS apartments. See list of DBSS projects.

Punggol 21 was announced in 1996 and got first residents in 2000 or 2001, a modern waterfront town featuring a mix of high-end HDB and Executive Condos, it is the first HDB town where each precint is individually designed and feature integrated carparks with green roofs, and no corridor-facing units. 1997 Asian Crisis and 2003 SARS turned Punggol into a ghost town with many unsold flats and no amenities. As 31 March 2004 it had 3768 4-Room, 10031 5-Room, 1126 Executive units, then construction was very slow until 2010. The Punggol LRT Line, despite having both loops completed in 2004, east loop opened in 2005 while the west loop opened only in 2014.

Pungool 21+ was announced in 2007 to rejuvenate the town, involving building a waterway through undeveloped part of town, amenities and low-end BTO projects with 2/3/4-room units. Imagine that if there was no 1997 Asian Crisis, Punggol was developed with big flats but without waterway!

Sembawang – Blue Riverview (built 1999-2000) / Sengkang – Compassvale South Gate (built 1999)
Sembawang - Blue Riverview (2001) Sengkang - Compassvale South Gate (built 2001)

Punggol blocks 178-193, last batch of Executive Apartments (built 2002-2003) / Punggol Eastdale blocks 637-652 (built 2003)
Punggol blocks 637-652 (built 2005) Punggol blocks 178-193 (built 2003-2004)

Punggol – Edgedale Green (built 2006-2007) and Periwinkle (built 2005-2006)
Punggol - Edgedale Green (built 2008) Punggol - Periwinkle (built 2007)

Commonwealth View (built 2007) / The River Vista @ Kallang (built 2010)
Commonwealth View (built 2008) The River Vista @ Kallang (2010)

2000s random HDB floor plans

Along 4-Room (90 sqm) and 5-Room (110 sqm), HDB reintroduced 3-Room (60 sqm, later 65 sqm) and 2-Room (35/45 sqm).

First 3 Room were in Cantonment Towers (SERS replacement block completed in 2000, lease 2002) and Clementi 366-367 (blocks with 1/2/3-Room flats completed in 2001, lease 2003). Special mention to Yishun 849 (weird block with completion year 2002 and lease date 01 Jul 1999 according HDB website).

Officially 3-Room was introduced in mainstream supply in Fernvale Grove (August 2004 BTO, completed in 2007-2008) and 2-Room in Fernvale Vista (July 2006 BTO, completed in 2010).

Studio Apartments (35/45 sqm) were introduced in 1998 (first 6 Studio blocks were completed in 2001), they are restricted to elderly (55+ years old), 30-year leases and cannot be sold in resale market. Originally were built in all-studio blocks, but in 2005 Eunos Court was completed with Studio mixed with normal flats.

The average size of new flats dropped from 105 sqm in 2000-2005 to 90 sqm in 2007 and around 80 sqm later.

HDB resumed building rental blocks in 2007, completing in 2009 first new corridor-style blocks with 1/2-room apartments, for people who are unable to own a flat.

2000s projects feature unique designs, although similar circular pattern: living – common bedrooms – master bedroom – bathrooms – kitchen, but with a lot of variations in room sizes and windows, there are variations even from one floor to another floor of same block, so I cannot post on my website all possible floor plans.

2000s flats offer full privacy (except rental blocks). Flats with rooms facing to corridor were built in small numbers until 2004 lease year. First BTO project was completed in 2004 and got lease from 2006, so all BTOs offer full privacy. Compared with 1990s flats, the layouts were improved, bedrooms were downsized in favor of larger living room, the study area returned in 5-room flats, and common toilet entrance is no longer in kitchen.

Typical floor from 2000s: Studio (35 / 45 sqm), 3-Room (65 sqm), 4-room (90 sqm), from Eunos Court and Kallang Heights SERS projects. BTO projects use similar layouts
SA (35 sqm) SA (45 sqm) 3-Room (65 sqm) 4-Room (90 sqm)

2003-2004 Punggol floor plans: 5-Room (114 sqm) and Executive (128 sqm), oversized living room
5-Room (110 sqm) EA (128 sqm)

Pinnacle @ Duxton, the first 50-storey public housing complex, was launched in May 2004 and got first residents in December 2009, for HDB anniversary of 50 years in February 2010. It was the biggest BTO project (7 blocks × 44 residential floors × 6 units per floor = 1848 units), 2 levels of skybridges, 2 flat types (S1 4-Room 90-93 sqm and S2 5-room 103-106 sqm), different combinations of bay windows, balconies and planters create 35 distinct flat layouts.

Nice find! http://www.msaudcolumbia.org/summer/?p=3032 – full complex floor plan and elevations.

Pinnacle@Duxton 4-Room Pinnacle @ Duxton Pinnacle@Duxton 5-Room

See more 2000s floor plans

2010s – Today trends

Three new housing areas were announced in HDB Press Release in 2013: Bidadari Estate (within Toa Payoh planning area), Tampines North and Punggol Matilda. Additional construction is done in Bukit Batok (west end), Choa Chu Kang (south end), Yishun (east side) and Sembawang (south area towards Yishun). The planning work for Bidadari started in 2012 and got first BTO launches in 2015.

Timothy wrote in 2011 on Wikipedia that after the current New Towns will be saturated, HDB will start building flats in Tengah, Simpang, Bukit Brown, Bidadari and Seletar… looks like a personal guess rather than official info.

Tengah, the 24th New Town, was officially announced in 2016 and first BTO was launched in Nov 2018.

2010s flats

SkyVille & SkyTerrace @ Dawson, two iconic BTO projects broke record of most expensive HDB flats, due to prime location near Queenstown MRT, and were still oversubscribed (9865 applications for all 1718 units, up to 12 applicants for each 5-rm unit, but in case of 3-rm units were slightly less applicants than units). Flats are even smaller than in [email protected], to 83 sqm for 4-rm and 101 sqm for 5-rm. SkyTerrace feature lofts and paired units (similar with dual-key units in condos), caused waste of space in already too small apartments.

Other BTO projects of 2010s decade remained at the standard sizes 45 / 65 / 90 / 110 sqm (internal floor area, in resale transactions they will appear 2-6 sqm bigger due to A/C ledge and balcony). Supply of 5-room was increased, average flat size rose from 80 sqm for BTO flats launched in 2009 to 85 sqm in 2012, then dropped to 75 sqm in 2014 due to increased supply of 2-room flats once singles over 35 were allowed to purchase new HDB 2-room flats.

Meantime, private developers downsized apartments, affecting DBSS and EC projects too, for example Trivelis sizes are 60 / 80-82 / 105 sqm. Of the 105 sqm 5-room, only 88 sqm is internal, be shocked at floor plan! If they specify balcony size 12 sqm, living room should be 3×5 m, common bedrooms 3×2.5 m, study 2x2m.

HDB do not reintroduce Executive Apartments, motivating that these flats were purchased by rich families who can afford too much space for no reason, also the average household size dropped thus larger flats are no longer necessary. Instead, HDB introduced 3gen flats in July 2013 BTO and restricted them to a married couple plus another family relative. 3gen flats have 4 bedrooms and 3 bathrooms in 115 sqm (following a trend started by Executive Condominiums that introduced 5-bedroom flats).

2-Room Flexi was announced on 19 August 2015, they replace Studio Apartments and 2-Room, can be purchased both by elderly (15-45 years lease, no resale market) and by families and singles (99 years leases, can be sold on resale market).

New Generation of Public Housing, the SkyVille and SkyTerrace @ Dawson Punggol Waterway Terraces

Skyville @ Dawson, smallest 4-Room BTO flat (83 sqm) / new 3gen flat introduced in 2013
SkyVille @ Dawson 4-room 3gen flat

More USEFUL info

What is HDB ceiling height

HDB floor-to-floor standard is 2.80 meters, ceiling height is 2.60 m except top floor in some 1990s blocks which is 2.90 m, I need confirmation if in other decades the top floor have taller ceiling than 2.60 m standard.

How to find the age of a HDB block

HDB do not provide exact year of construction, except in press release about the blocks that are selected for SERS.

HDB provide instead the Lease commence date in Resale Flat Prices e-service for blocks available on resale market (no blocks under MOP or rental blocks). In Singapore the lease commence date is more important than building year. Lease year correspond with building year + 1, with few exceptions.

See also Enquire status of HDB upgrading programmes e-service, showing number of units in any block, too bad that they do not display the year of construction, as selection for upgrading programmes is based on construction year.

I compiled myself the Database of HDB blocks in Excel format with all above information and sell it to companies while ordinary people can use HDB Map to information about any block (lease commence date, number of units, flat types, etc).

How urban planning in Singapore was done

Since 1960 to 1990s all HDB towns were planned using a standard density of 200 dwelling units per hectare. Flat sizes were growing over the years, leading to a stupid situation: the blocks with big flats and wealthy residents were denser and their occupants did not had enough space to park their cars, while the 1-room rental flats had largest open spaces and empty carparks.

Somewhere in 1990s a new urban planning control was introduced: plot ratios (gross floor area divided by land area). To create a vibrant city, low-, medium and high-density areas were created. The ratios were revised and raised in Master Plan 1998, today most public housing are in 2.8 – 4.2 range, low-density condos are low as 1.4 and office buildings in Central Business District reach a plot ratio of 12.

How many New Towns built HDB in Singapore

Based on construction stages:

  • Singapore Improvement Trust (SIT) and Housing and Development Board (HDB) built 20 New Towns (10,000-70,000 units) and about 80-100 small estates (under 10,000 units).
  • Economic Development Board (EDB) built in 1964-1968 and Jurong Town Corporation (JTC) built between 1968 and late 1970s 5 estates in Jurong and Sembawang industrial areas.
  • Housing and Urban Development Company (HUDC) built between 1974 and 1987 22 estates totaling about 9,800 units, sandwich housing for middle-income people who did not qualify for HDB flats but could not afford a private property. List of HUDC estates.

HDB took over JTC and HUDC in 1982, becoming sole provider of public housing in Singapore. The last 12 HUDC estates were actually built by HDB.

The HDB Annual Reports up to 1989 display a list of about 100 estates.

Based on current town boundaries:

URA defined 55 Planning Areas in 1991, HDB New Towns and Estates were reorganized into 20 “Towns” and 11 “Other Estates” in AR 1990, few years later the other estates were regrouped into 6, of which Sembawang and Sengkang were turned into “towns” in AR 1996, Punggol was added in AR 1999, Lim Chu Kang was demolished, reaching today figure of 23 towns and 3 estates. Tengah was announced in 2016 as 24th HDB Town. There is no relation between Planning Areas / Towns and historical development HDB New Towns / Estates.

The current 24 HDB Towns and 3 Estates match URA planning areas with 2 exceptions:

  • Kallang-Whampoa is one HDB town stretching on 3 planning areas (Kallang, Whampoa, Novena).
  • Pasir Ris town also include Changi Village (from Changi planning area).

More notes:

  • Geylang, Kallang-Whampoa and Bukit Merah towns contains several HDB estates built inside original Singapore city so are not “new towns” but Annual Report classify them as “town”.
  • Central Area, Bukit Timah and Marine Parade appear in Annual Report under “other estates” and in HDB Resale Flat Prices e-service as “town”.
  • Lim Chu Kang estate is no longer in use since 2001, but it appeared in HDB Resale Flat Prices e-service until 2009.
  • Tengah was added in HDB Resale Flat Prices e-service in 2016, despite that first BTO was launched in November 2018 and only around 2026 the flats are expected to reach resale market.


About me

I wrote this article from my personal research since 2009, because others (including Wikipedia) are incomplete, not detailed, create confusion and may contain errors. Please do not copy any part of page TEXT without my approval. Photographs are from Panoramio, Wikipedia, etc and are linked to their original source. Feel free to use the HDB floor plans, for using photographs you may want to ask permission to their original authors.

How I got floor plans?

During 2009 research, I picked 52 floor plans from October 2009 Sale of Balance Flats, copying images from PDF brochures (one PDF per town, few hundred floor plans to choose from). They had cream background, about 400-600 pixels tall, 29 pixels per meter. Additional floor plans I collected from random forums and blogs, reaching 100 floor plans in 2012 that represent 90% of all HDB flat types built before BTO era. Images were resized with HTML code “height=200px” so anyone accessing the page, had to download 20 MB of full-size images, causing excessive server load.

In 2014, to reduce bandwidth usage and improve website design, I re-made the floor plans using March 2012 Sale of Balance Flats (1000+ floor plans to choose from, each on a separate PDF file, took me about 20 hours to download all PDFs). I took screenshot of PDF file at 100% zoom, cropped image in Paint then added the gray info bar at bottom. Full-size images about 600-1000 pixels tall (44 pixels per meter), and thumbnail images at 1/4 size. Page size reduced to 8 MB. See comparison: OLD vs NEW floor plans.

The floor plans shown here are far away from being “complete”

This page was intended as educational material, showing HDB history and evolution of typical floor plans, but the audience is mostly resale flat buyers than students, they believe that this is / they want this to be a complete collection HDB floor plans, no matter how many floor plans I post, they want more!

Lots of variations exists. Example: 3-Room New Generation flat (67 sqm), the units that are not next to staircase do not have that thick wall, units that are not next to corridor-end unit do not display a second door on corridor, all these 4 can be mirrored, total 8 possible floor plans. I can post over 1000 floor plan variations, and no one will know how many other variations exists. This would overload website and will create trouble for people trying to find a basic floor plan.

Occasionally I get emails from “contributors” sending me their own floor plan (in most cases, too similar with one posted already, or too rare to worth posting), other people complain that the website is cluttered. This is why I decided in late 2012 to STOP adding more content unless there is something special.

I may delete least clicked images to improve usefulness of website. See most downloaded HDB floor plans (April-July 2014).

Buy my collection of floor plans

I downloaded from HDB website over 10,000 files from Sale of Balance Flats between 2008 and 2016: individual flat plans in PDF (they include unit number), whole block plans in PDF, site plans in JPG, etc. I can provide my collection for a price. Do note that this is complete collection of the flats sold at SBF, not complete collection of all HDB flats ever built, and there are many duplicate floor plans.

Trouble finding floor plan of a certain block? Have a floor plan but do not know where it is located?

I have high experience in HDB architecture so I can identify flat types in 99% of HDB blocks just by looking in satellite photos, eventually Google street view, and in the past I helped numerous people by indicating possible floor plans (if I have them), but as website traffic increased, it became annoying.

Since 2017 I made HDB Map where you can click any block and see typical floor plans for each block (for standard blocks built up to 2005, and PDF brochures for BTO blocks). If clicking your block on map, it do not show floor plans, DO NOT message me asking for floor plans, most likely I don’t have any from that block. There may be 10-20% chances to have a floor plan in my computer and when I will have more free time I will look through floor plans and add on map.

If you want individual unit floor plans for recent BTO blocks, do a Google image search for precinct name (rather than block number), or look on www.renotalk.com and other forums where people post their floor plans asking for renovation ideas. I do not have in my computer more than what can see yourself in forums.

Note: floor plans posted in this article, on HDB Map or emailed by me should be used to get a rough idea of flat layouts available in a particular block, you should not give me full unit address because I CANNOT guarantee giving you a floor plan that is 100% matching YOUR unit. As explained above, there are 8 possible variations of 3-Room New Generation flat (67 sqm), in a single block.

If you already purchased a flat and need CORRECT floor plan for renovation, you are advised to buy from HDB for $5.

If you have a floor plan and don’t know where it is located, send it to me and I can also help you.

Other articles about history of public housing in Singapore


Visit Hometrust to read Singapore interior designer reviews.

If you are student or love architecture, see also my own apartments designs, some being inspired from HDB designs and improved or alternatives to HDB layouts.

HDB floor plans > AutoCAD .DWG

I can provide DWG file, 2D or 3D model of your HDB flat for only $40!

HDB 5-Room flat Fernvale Foliage 3D ModelAnd not just HDB floor plans. I can also design condo floor plans, house plans, etc. Contact me for anything that can be drafted in AutoCAD!

I am writing this page in 2013 after being hired by a Malaysian architect to draw 5 HDB whole block floor plan in AutoCAD, for analysis of space efficiency. Later, a Singaporean asked me to draw his own HDB flat and suggest furniture layout. Another one asked if I have certain HDB flat in DWG format, I replied “I can draw it now in AutoCAD” but he said “Thanks anyway” and quit.

Beside this, watching website traffic I see many searches like “hdb 3-room new generation dwg file“, and most people do not click About Me page to see that I am also AutoCAD designer and I could offer DWG files. So I made this page to show… some of the HDB flats designed so far.

HDB floor plans AutoCAD DWG file


You can give me floor plan of your flat, you can choose a floor plan from the page with 100 typical HDB Floor Plans (but beware of possible differences between your flat and the typical floor plans posted here), or give me your block number and I may have or not the exact floor plan in my collection of PDF floor plans collected from Sale of Balance Flats.

There is not mandatory to provide a floor plan with dimensions. I can also use a block plan from BTO brochures, put it in AutoCAD, draw a polyline over 4-room flat and scale it until it reach the floor area of 90 sqm. There will be a small error margin, but it will be no problem if you use DWG file for presentation only and not for calculation of interior design.

You can choose the detail level (2D or 3D, add furniture, dimensions, or leave only walls) and how to give you (DWG, DXF, PDF, etc).

Price formula: $20 + $20 for each flat floor plan or + $40 for each block floor plan. This formula is intended to provide discount for people who need more than one floor plan. With other words, $40 for first flat and $20 for additional ones, $60 for first block and $40 for additional ones.

Drafting 2D over HDB floor plan takes about 1 hour if I am not busy with another project. 3D-ing a 2D plan takes 10 minutes.

I treat each customer individually and give you a personalized DWG file. There is a chance that you want DWG of same flat type as a previous customer, this save some time, but the drawing may have only walls in 2D and 3D because this is what the previous customer wanted, while you want 2D only but with dimensions and furniture, so I cannot sell “as it is”, instead I will remake drawing “as you want”.

Pay here

Pay for service

List of BTO projects

HDB BTOAdvice: if you applied for a BTO and a good queue number, don’t apply via SBF hoping to get a better flat in better location and available sooner, the battle for each flat in SBF in mature towns is huge and you risk to remain homeless! Well, you can apply via SBF in Sembawang where application rate hardly reach 1:1.

Floor plans can be seen in HDB brochures (2010-present).

Looking for future BTO launches?

Town name BTO name Launch
date (note)
Number of flats
Studio 2-rm 3-rm 4-rm 5-rm 3gen Total
2001-2005 22 BTO projects – 12483 flats
Average flat size: 91.67 sqm
Sembawang Flowing Greenery Apr 2001 Cancelled 210 200 410
Sembawang River Edge Apr 2001 Apr 2005 222 225 447
Sengkang Arcadia Apr 2001 Apr 2005 640 321 961
Sengkang Rivervale Green Apr 2001 Apr 2005 576 200 776
Punggol Edgedale Green Dec 2002 Dec 2006 582 582
Punggol Periwinkle Dec 2002 Dec 2006 450 450
Sengkang Coris 1 Dec 2002 Dec 2006 434 434
Punggol Sundial Sep 2003 Sep 2007 425 425
Punggol Sundial
(half relaunched as Nautilus)
Sep 2003 Cancelled 478 478
Sembawang Spring Lodge
(relaunched as River Lodge)
Sep 2003 Cancelled 432 432
Sengkang Coris 2 Sep 2003 Sep 2007 448 448
Sengkang Aspella 1 Dec 2003 Dec 2007 429 429
Sengkang Aspella 2 Dec 2003 Dec 2007 433 433
Sengkang Atrina 1 Mar 2004 Mar 2008 424 424
Sengkang Atrina 2 Mar 2004 Mar 2008 366 366
Central [email protected] May 2004 May 2010 1232 616 1848
Sengkang Fernvale Grove Aug 2004 Aug 2008 156 352 508
Punggol Anthias
(relaunched as Damai Grove)
Dec 2004 Cancelled 134 600 734
Sengkang Coral Green
(relaunched as Coral Spring)
Dec 2004 Cancelled 655 655
Sengkang Tivela Mar 2005 Mar 2009 374 374
Punggol Coralinus 1 Jun 2005 Jun 2009 369 369
Sengkang Fernvale Court Sep 2005 Sep 2009 128 372 500
2006 6 BTO projects – 2357 flats
Average flat size: 82.66 sqm
Punggol Coralinus 2 Feb 2006 Feb 2010 365 365
Sengkang Fernvale Vista 1 Jul 2006 Jul 2010 86 92 330 508
Bishan Golden Jasmine Sep 2006 Sep 2010 176 176
Sembawang Sembawang Green Sep 2006 Sep 2010 471 471
Geylang Sri Geylang Serai Oct 2006 Oct 2010 447 447
Sengkang Compassvale View Nov 2006 Nov 2010 105 285 390
2007 10 BTO projects – 5916 flats
Average flat size: 82.65 sqm
Punggol Treelodge Mar 2007 Mar 2011 98 600 14 712
Sengkang Fernvale Vista 2 May 2007 May 2011 164 174 340 678
Punggol Punggol Vista Aug 2007 Aug 2011 105 210 313 628
Sengkang Coral Spring Sep 2007 Sep 2011 698 698
Bukit Merah Telok Blangah Towers Oct 2007 Oct 2011 90 100 210 400
Punggol Punggol Lodge Oct 2007 Oct 2011 52 464 516
Bukit Panjang Segar Meadows Nov 2007 Nov 2011 90 322 412
Sengkang Compassvale Beacon Nov 2007 Nov 2011 60 150 540 750
Punggol Damai Grove Dec 2007 Dec 2011 62 676 738
Yishun Jade Spring 1 Dec 2007 Dec 2011 48 336 384
2008 12 BTO projects – 7789 flats
Average flat size: 87.75 sqm
Punggol Punggol Spring Feb 2008 Feb 2012 494 494
Yishun Jade Spring 2 Mar 2008 Mar 2012 36 72 464 572
Punggol Punggol Sapphire May 2008 May 2012 760 305 1065
Sengkang Compassvale Pearl May 2008 May 2010 336 84 420
Punggol Punggol Breeze Jun 2008 Jun 2012 778 186 964
Sengkang Fernvale Residence Jun 2008 Jun 2011 55 444 124 623
Woodlands Straits Vista Jun 2008 Jun 2012 50 332 382
Bukit Panjang Senja Green 26 Aug 2008 Aug 2012 96 94 284 474
Punggol Punggol Arcadia 13 Nov 2008 Nov 2011 120 465 165 750
Choa Chu Kang Sunshine Court Dec 2008 Dec 2012 164 117 171 452
Punggol Punggol Regalia Dec 2008 Dec 2011 546 183 729
Yishun Dew Spring 18 Dec 2008 Dec 2012 144 216 504 864
2009 13 BTO projects – 9112 flats
Average flat size: 80.15 sqm
Woodlands Champions Court 25 Feb 2009 Feb 2013 224 182 224 185 815
Punggol The Nautilus @ Punggol 26 Mar 2009 Mar 2013 413 106 519
Sengkang Fernvale Crest 02 Jun 2009 Jun 2013 142 372 188 702
Punggol Punggol Residences 30 Jul 2009 Jul 2013 615 154 769
Punggol Punggol Spectra 31 Aug 2009 Aug 2013 301 285 556 1142
Jurong West Boon Lay Meadow 16 Oct 2009 Oct 2013 240 300 165 705
Sengkang Fernvale Palms 16 Oct 2009 Oct 2013 96 347 52 495
Punggol Punggol Ripples 16 Nov 2009 Nov 2013 130 157 403 690
Punggol Punggol Sails 16 Nov 2009 Nov 2013 278 218 109 605
Bukit Panjang Segar Grove 15 Dec 2009 Dec 2013 115 217 196 528
Queenstown [email protected] 15 Dec 2009 Dec 2014 105 110 459 84 758
Queenstown [email protected] 15 Dec 2009 Dec 2014 160 682 118 960
Sembawang Montreal Dale 15 Dec 2009 Dec 2013 116 156 152 424
2010 22 BTO projects – 16405 flats
Average flat size: 80.89 sqm
Hougang Buangkok Vale 05 Jan 2010 1Q 2014 128 118 453 699
Choa Chu Kang Limbang Green 05 Jan 2010 3Q 2013 276 128 188 592
Punggol Punggol Crest 11 Feb 2010 4Q 2013 240 240 270 750
Woodlands Treegrove 11 Feb 2010 4Q 2014 192 220 372 784
Sengkang Fernvale Ridge 16 Mar 2010 2Q 2014 180 216 126 522
Sembawang River Lodge 16 Mar 2010 2Q 2014 126 86 220 432
Punggol Punggol Emerald 20 Apr 2010 2Q 2014 188 96 350 222 856
Punggol Punggol Waves 20 Apr 2010 1Q 2014 105 259 209 573
Jurong West Boon Lay Grove 06 May 2010 4Q 2013 300 150 450
Yishun Floral Spring 06 May 2010 1Q 2014 96 264 240 600
Punggol Waterway Terraces 30 Jun 2010 1Q 2015 178 588 306 1072
Sengkang Fernvale Foliage 30 Jun 2010 2Q 2014 336 168 504
Sengkang Rivervale Arc 30 Jun 2010 1Q 2014 238 221 661 1120
Jurong West Corporation Tiara 29 Jul 2010 2Q 2014 190 171 104 465
Bukit Panjang Senja Gateway 29 Jul 2010 3Q 2014 254 313 174 741
Yishun Yishun Rivervalk 31 Aug 2010 4Q 2014 254 250 652 252 1408
Woodlands Woodlands Dew 21 Sep 2010 2Q 2014 330 145 314 789
Woodlands Woodlands Meadow 21 Sep 2010 2Q 2014 75 255 210 540
Sengkang Anchorvale Horizon 26 Oct 2010 1Q 2014 240 357 148 745
Bukit Panjang Senja Park View 26 Oct 2010 4Q 2014 112 112 353 577
Yishun Yishun Greenwalk 18 Nov 2010 3Q 2014 112 602 462 1176
Punggol Punggol Topaz 22 Dec 2010 2Q 2015 184 542 284 1010
2011 39 BTO projects – 25294 flats
Average flat size: 83.40 sqm
Bukit Batok Golden Daisy 25 Jan 2011 1Q 2014 180 180
Yishun Orchid Spring @ Yishun 25 Jan 2011 4Q 2014 192 252 504 948
Yishun Vista Spring @ Yishun 25 Jan 2011 3Q 2014 96 324 276 696
Sengkang Fernvale Flora 28 Feb 2011 2Q 2014 93 107 321 521
Sengkang Fernvale Gardens 28 Feb 2011 2Q 2014 210 172 382
Bukit Panjang Segar Vale 28 Feb 2011 2Q 2014 112 112 269 197 690
Jurong West Boon Lay Fields 24 Mar 2011 1Q 2014 93 246 152 491
Sengkang Compassvale Ancilla 24 Mar 2011 3Q 2014 224 142 420 252 1038
Punggol Waterway Terraces II 25 Apr 2011 2Q 2015 118 440 246 804
Sengkang Anchorvale Cove 25 Apr 2011 4Q 2014 218 463 330 1011
Hougang Hougang Parkview 25 Apr 2011 2Q 2014 98 528 166 792
Sembawang Montreal Ville 25 Apr 2011 1Q 2014 105 107 366 578
Pasir Ris Costa Ris 27 May 2011 3Q 2014 257 224 688 217 1386
Pasir Ris Golden Lily 27 May 2011 4Q 2013 185 185
Punggol Punggol Parcvista 27 May 2011 2Q 2014 172 338 172 682
Tampines Tampines GreenLeaf 27 May 2011 3Q 2014 96 160 384 320 960
Tampines Tampines GreenWood 27 May 2011 2Q 2014 144 158 220 522
Woodlands Woodlands Peak 27 May 2011 3Q 2015 127 95 222
Yishun Yishun Natura 14 Jul 2011 4Q 2014 112 140 112 364
Bukit Panjang Segar Meadows 14 Jul 2011 3Q 2014 60 240 300
Bukit Panjang Segar Palmview 14 Jul 2011 4Q 2014 119 350 213 682
Sengkang Anchorvale Isles 14 Jul 2011 2Q 2014 405 270 675
Sengkang Fernvale Riverbow 14 Jul 2011 4Q 2014 168 539 447 1154
Tampines Golden Carnation 14 Jul 2011 1Q 2014 149 149
Jurong West Golden Orchid 14 Jul 2011 2Q 2014 232 232
Punggol Waterway Woodcress 22 Sep 2011 1Q 2015 100 350 244 694
Punggol Waterway Brooks 22 Sep 2011 3Q 2015 156 691 465 1312
Sengkang Anchorvale Harvest 22 Sep 2011 3Q 2014 88 404 225 717
Sengkang Fernvale Rivergrove 22 Sep 2011 3Q 2015 100 484 892 252 1728
Ang Mo Kio Yio Chu Kang Vista 22 Sep 2011 4Q 2014 158 98 256
Jurong East Teban View 22 Sep 2011 4Q 2015 185 333 518
Jurong West Golden Peony 22 Sep 2011 3Q 2014 190 190
Punggol Waterway Ridges 24 Nov 2011 2Q 2015 224 362 246 832
Punggol Waterway Banks 24 Nov 2011 2Q 2014 410 606 1016
Hougang Capeview 24 Nov 2011 1Q 2015 108 429 244 781
Hougang Dew Court 24 Nov 2011 1Q 2015 198 181 379
Yishun Acacia Breeze 24 Nov 2011 1Q 2015 108 418 308 834
Bukit Panjang Fajar Spring 24 Nov 2011 4Q 2014 156 108 264
Bedok Golden Cassia 24 Nov 2011 4Q 2014 129 129
2012 40 BTO projects – 27084 flats
Average flat size: 85.12 sqm
Choa Chu Kang Sunshine Gardens 12 Jan 2012 2Q 2015 104 118 788 518 1528
Sengkang Fernvale Lea 12 Jan 2012 3Q 2015 100 100 600 350 1150
Punggol Waterway Sunbeam 12 Jan 2012 2Q 2015 185 260 216 661
Tampines Tampines GreenTerrace 12 Jan 2012 3Q 2014 99 196 295
Tampines Tampines Alcoves 12 Jan 2012 3Q 2014 186 103 289
Bukit Batok Skyline I @ Bukit Batok 28 Mar 2012 2Q 2016 78 216 194 488
Bukit Batok Skyline II @ Bukit Batok 28 Mar 2012 1Q 2017 136 301 307 744
Bukit Panjang Fajar Hills 28 Mar 2012 4Q 2015 146 392 324 862
Clementi Clementi Ridges 28 Mar 2012 3Q 2016 156 312 216 684
Geylang MacPherson Residency 28 Mar 2012 4Q 2015 211 426 637
Bedok Ping Yi Greens 28 Mar 2012 4Q 2015 98 84 236 418
Bukit Timah Golden Kismis 28 Mar 2012 3Q 2015 132 132
Toa Payoh Golden Clover 28 Mar 2012 3Q 2015 188 188
Sengkang Compassvale Boardwalk 30 May 2012 4Q 2015 252 222 474
Choa Chu Kang Keat Hong Pride 30 May 2012 2Q 2016 80 656 407 1143
Punggol Punggol Edge 30 May 2012 2Q 2016 128 400 160 688
Punggol Waterway SunDew 30 May 2012 2Q 2016 152 423 262 837
Kallang/Whampoa Bendemeer Light 30 May 2012 4Q 2016 212 412 624
Kallang/Whampoa McNair Towers 30 May 2012 4Q 2016 270 115 476 861
Choa Chu Kang Keat Hong Axis 31 Jul 2012 1Q 2016 98 140 520 372 1130
Punggol Punggol Opal 31 Jul 2012 4Q 2015 128 144 254 526
Punggol Waterway Cascadia 31 Jul 2012 3Q 2016 242 500 267 1009
Clementi Clementi Gateway 31 Jul 2012 3Q 2016 134 144 278
Bukit Merah Depot Heights 31 Jul 2012 3Q 2016 114 128 176 418
Bukit Merah Telok Blangah Ridgeview 31 Jul 2012 1Q 2016 96 396 492
Geylang Greentops @ Sims Place 31 Jul 2012 4Q 2015 196 142 338
Choa Chu Kang Keat Hong Quad 27 Sep 2012 1Q 2016 334 190 524
Woodlands TreeTrail @ Woodlands 27 Sep 2012 2Q 2016 418 234 652
Woodlands Golden Saffron 27 Sep 2012 2Q 2015 128 128
Ang Mo Kio Cheng San Court 27 Sep 2012 1Q 2018 171 178 363 712
Ang Mo Kio Teck Ghee Parkview 27 Sep 2012 1Q 2017 130 256 190 576
Tampines Tampines Greenlace 27 Sep 2012 1Q 2016 215 165 380
Kallang/Whampoa Tenteram Peak 27 Sep 2012 4Q 2016 319 436 755
Choa Chu Kang Keat Kong Mirage 21 Nov 2012 3Q 2016 114 559 486 1159
Sengkang Compassvale Mast 21 Nov 2012 2Q 2016 104 465 359 928
Sengkang Rivervale Delta 21 Nov 2012 2Q 2016 102 425 357 884
Bedok Fengshan GreenVille 21 Nov 2012 4Q 2017 /
4Q 2018
198 182 570 108 1058
Queenstown Ghim Moh Edge 21 Nov 2012 2Q 2017 222 296 661 1179
Toa Payoh Joo Seng Green 21 Nov 2012 1Q 2016 102 146 248
Toa Payoh Toa Payoh Crest 21 Nov 2012 3Q 2017 232 311 464 1007
2013 34 BTO projects – 25215 flats
Average flat size: 84.95 sqm
Hougang Hougang ParkEdge 29 Jan 2013 2Q 2016 136 204 238 578
Choa Chu Kang Keat Hong Colours
(+ 210 1-rm, 300 2-rm rental)
29 Jan 2013 4Q 2016 136 484 348 968
Yishun Oleander Breeze @ Yishun 29 Jan 2013 3Q 2016 160 348 180 688
Ang Mo Kio Kebun Baru Court 29 Jan 2013 2Q 2017 180 103 283
Tampines Tampines GreenForest 29 Jan 2013 2Q 2016 160 264 424
Kallang/Whampoa Whampoa Dew 29 Jan 2013 2Q 2017 156 249 405
Sengkang Compassvale Cape 21 Mar 2013 4Q 2016 168 196 588 440 1392
Sengkang Compassvale Helm 21 Mar 2013 4Q 2016 138 253 207 598
Punggol Matilda Portico 21 Mar 2013 2Q 2016 251 219 470
Bukit Batok SkyPeak @ Bukit Batok 21 Mar 2013 4Q 2017 100 110 790 430 1430
Sembawang EastBank @ Canberra 30 May 2013 4Q 2016 193 179 372
Sembawang EastBrook @ Canberra 30 May 2013 2Q 2017 140 263 627 1030
Sembawang EastWave @ Canberra 30 May 2013 2Q 2017 379 335 714
Hougang Golden Mint 30 May 2013 4Q 2016 292 292
Hougang Hougang Crimson 30 May 2013 4Q 2016 104 210 314
Choa Chu Kang Keat Hong Crest 30 May 2013 1Q 2017 146 328 208 682
Jurong West Spring Haven @ Jurong 30 May 2013 1Q 2017 90 150 238 478
Woodlands Woodlands Pasture I & II 30 May 2013 2Q 2017 156 509 353 1018
Yishun Angsana Breeze @ Yishun 30 Jul 2013 1Q 2017 186 520 252 958
Yishun Vine Grove @ Yishun 30 Jul 2013 4Q 2016 180 192 324 696
Sengkang Fernvale Riverwalk 30 Jul 2013 2Q 2017 121 205 401 727
Bukit Merah Telok Blangah ParcView 30 Jul 2013 4Q 2017 172 386 922 1480
Punggol Matilda Edge 26 Sep 2013 4Q 2017 192 538 600 1330
Punggol The Verandah @ Matilda 26 Sep 2013 1Q 2017 258 223 481
Punggol Waterway View 26 Sep 2013 3Q 2017 190 526 341 1057
Yishun Khatib Court 26 Sep 2013 2Q 2017 143 167 310
Yishun Palm Breeze @ Yishun 26 Sep 2013 4Q 2016 96 274 176 546
Yishun Saraca Breeze @ Yishun 26 Sep 2013 1Q 2017 84 96 168 84 84 516
Woodlands Admiralty Grove 26 Nov 2013 3Q 2017 252 240 333 168 993
Jurong West Boon Lay View 26 Nov 2013 2Q 2017 140 306 252 112 810
Jurong West Yung Kuang Court 26 Nov 2013 3Q 2017 302 226 528
Sembawang EastLawn @ Canberra 26 Nov 2013 2Q 2017 163 174 337
Hougang Hougang Meadow 26 Nov 2013 1Q 2017 150 188 394 732
Bukit Batok West Ridges @ Bukit Batok 26 Nov 2013 1Q 2018 202 235 591 550 1578
2014 32 BTO projects – 22581 flats
Average flat size: 76.56 sqm
Bukit Batok Bukit Gombak Vista 22 Jan 2014 4Q 2017 156 130 286
Jurong West Golden Lavender 22 Jan 2014 3Q 2017 149 149
Punggol Punggol Bayview 22 Jan 2014 1Q 2018 /
4Q 2018
202 462 380 52 1096
Punggol Punggol Vue
(+ 215 1-rm, 215 2-rm rental)
22 Jan 2014 4Q 2017 304 266 570
Woodlands Woodlands Glen 22 Jan 2014 2Q 2017 300 180 408 888
Serangoon Golden Ginger 22 Jan 2014 3Q 2017 150 150
Sembawang EastCrown @ Canberra 26 Mar 2014 3Q 2017 312 264 370 274 1220
Sembawang EastLace @ Canberra 26 Mar 2014 2Q 2017 140 140 200 480
Sengkang Anchorvale Parkview 26 Mar 2014 1Q 2017 268 165 70 503
Yishun Fern Grove @ Yishun 26 Mar 2014 4Q 2017 288 251 443 312 1294
Bukit Batok West Crest @ Bukit Batok 22 May 2014 4Q 2017 100 206 189 495
Bukit Batok West Valley @ Bukit Batok 22 May 2014 1Q 2018 290 216 418 924
Woodlands Admiralty Flora 22 May 2014 2Q 2017 221 181 402
Woodlands Marsiling Greenview
(+ 174 1-rm, 268 2-rm rental)
22 May 2014 3Q 2018 289 194 389 382 50 1304
Punggol Matilda Court 19 Jul 2014 4Q 2017 320 112 380 350 1162
Punggol Waterway Sunray 19 Jul 2014 4Q 2017 104 96 194 188 582
Sembawang Sun Natura
(+ 180 1-rm, 150 2-rm rental)
19 Jul 2014 2Q 2018 330 121 397 848
Toa Payoh Toa Payoh Apex 19 Jul 2014 4Q 2018 138 419 557
Woodlands Kampung Admiralty 19 Jul 2014 3Q 2017 104 104
Yishun Park Grove @ Yishun 19 Jul 2014 3Q 2017 120 204 216 48 588
Bukit Batok West Terra & Bukit Batok 24 Sep 2014 1Q 2018 462 261 616 454 1793
Hougang Buangkok Edgeview 24 Sep 2014 4Q 2017 232 179 56 467
Hougang Buangkok Square 24 Sep 2014 2Q 2018 317 116 292 725
Jurong West Yung Ho Spring I 24 Sep 2014 2Q 2018 240 135 266 641
Jurong West Yung Ho Spring II 24 Sep 2014 2Q 2018 171 95 266
Kallang/Whampoa St. George’s Towers 24 Sep 2014 1Q 2019 151 124 463 738
Sembawang Sun Breeze
( +174 1-rm, 138 2-rm rental)
25 Nov 2014 1Q 2018 278 116 306 700
Sengkang Anchorvale Fields 25 Nov 2014 2Q 2018 224 63 224 511
Yishun Blossom Spring @ Yishun
( +221 1-rm, 208 2-rm rental)
25 Nov 2014 3Q 2018 260 130 260 650
Yishun Meadow Spring @ Yishun 25 Nov 2014 4Q 2018 182 77 210 469
Tampines Tampines GreenEdge 25 Nov 2014 4Q 2017 154 198 99 451
Tampines Tampines GreenRidges
(+ 254 1-rm, 193 2-rm rental)
25 Nov 2014 1Q 2019 454 740 246 56 1496
2015 21 BTO projects – 15100 flats
Average flat size: 75.34 sqm
Bukit Batok West Edge @ Bukit Batok
(+ 168 1-rm, 168 2-rm rental)
11 Feb 2015 1Q 2019 628 108 646 212 1594
Bukit Batok West Rock @ Bukit Batok 11 Feb 2015 3Q 2018 218 172 58 448
Hougang Buangkok Parkvista 11 Feb 2015 4Q 2018 198 95 192 485
Hougang Buangkok Tropica 11 Feb 2015 3Q 2018 285 90 343 718
Geylang MacPherson Spring 11 Feb 2015 2Q 2019 168 204 378 750
Clementi Clementi Crest 27 May 2015 2Q 2020 229 156 385
Punggol Northshore Residences I 27 May 2015 2Q 2020 208 64 227 89 588
Punggol Northshore Residences II 27 May 2015 2Q 2020 338 48 292 136 814
Sembawang EastLink I @ Canberra 27 May 2015 3Q 2019 229 139 232 600
Sembawang EastLink II @ Canberra 27 May 2015 2Q 2019 174 116 151 441
Tampines Tampines GreenWeave 27 May 2015 3Q 2019 224 80 465 391 56 1216
Bidadari Alkaff CourtView 17 Nov 2015 2Q 2020 192 369 697 1258
Bidadari Alkaff LakeView 17 Nov 2015 4Q 2019 198 333 531
Bidadari Alkaff Vista 17 Nov 2015 3Q 2019 199 151 350
Bukit Batok West Quarry @ Bukit Batok 17 Nov 2015 2Q 2019 337 79 220 636
Choa Chu Kang Teck Whye Vista 17 Nov 2015 2Q 2020 126 126
Hougang Hougang RiverCourt 17 Nov 2015 3Q 2020 155 83 47 285
Punggol Waterfront I @ Northshore 17 Nov 2015 4Q 2020 150 116 370 106 49 791
Punggol Waterfront II @ Northshore 17 Nov 2015 4Q 2020 212 115 387 141 48 903
Punggol Northshore StraitsView 17 Nov 2015 3Q 2020 469 98 264 190 1021
Sengkang Fernvale Woods 17 Nov 2015 3Q 2019 607 135 226 192 1160
2016 23 BTO projects – 17891 flats
Average flat size: 76.44 sqm
Bidadari Alkaff Oasis 24 Feb 2016 4Q 2020 218 340 800 165 71 1594
Bukit Batok West Plains @ Bukit Batok 24 Feb 2016 2Q 2020 674 187 410 384 1655
Sengkang Anchorvale Plains 24 Feb 2016 1Q 2020 448 96 260 117 921
Bukit Panjang Senja Heights 24 May 2016 3Q 2021 253 85 214 552
Bukit Panjang Senja Ridges 24 May 2016 2Q 2021 106 62 62 230
Bukit Panjang Senja Valley 24 May 2016 4Q 2021 400 105 205 79 789
Sembawang EastCreek @ Canberra 24 May 2016 4Q 2019 610 116 350 176 1252
Ang Mo Kio Ang Mo Kio Court 24 May 2016 3Q 2020 156 234 148 52 590
Bedok Bedok North Woods 24 May 2016 2Q 2020 110 247 357
Hougang Buangkok Woods 17 Aug 2016 4Q 2019 364 97 250 711
Sembawang EastDelta @ Canberra 17 Aug 2016 3Q 2019
to 4Q 2019
304 266 570
Yishun Valley Spring @ Yishun 17 Aug 2016 4Q 2019
to 1Q 2020
416 100 308 824
Tampines Tampines GreenView 17 Aug 2016 3Q 2019
to 4Q 2019
112 395 207 714
Tampines Tampines GreenVerge 17 Aug 2016 3Q 2020
to 1Q 2021
244 1106 612 60 2022
Punggol Matilda Sundeck 22 Nov 2016 3Q 2020 295 195 490
Punggol Northshore Trio 22 Nov 2016 3Q 2021 198 94 117 409
Punggol Waterway Sunrise I 22 Nov 2016 4Q 2020
to 1Q 2021
671 80 341 138 65 1295
Bedok Bedok Beacon 22 Nov 2016 2Q 2021 200 300 500
Bedok Bedok North Vale 22 Nov 2016 2Q 2020 121 94 215
Bedok Bedok South Horizon 22 Nov 2016 4Q 2020
to 1Q 2021
209 457 274 940
Bidadari Woodleigh Glen 22 Nov 2016 2Q 2021 130 130 428 688
Bidadari Woodleigh Village 22 Nov 2016 3Q 2021 171 159 330
Kallang/Whampoa Kallang Residences 22 Nov 2016 4Q 2021 85 158 243
2017 20 BTO projects – 17584 flats
Average flat size: 78.77 sqm
Punggol Northshore Cove 14 Feb 2017 3Q2021 310 114 207 170 801
Punggol Waterway Sunrise II 14 Feb 2017 1Q2021
to 2Q2021
403 95 516 1014
Clementi Clementi NorthArc 14 Feb 2017 1Q to
148 529 404 98 1179
Clementi Clementi Peaks 14 Feb 2017 2Q2022 70 237 117 424
Tampines Tampines GreenBloom 14 Feb 2017 3Q2020 153 111 55 319
Tampines Tampines GreenFlora 14 Feb 2017 3Q2020 153 125 41 319
Woodlands Marsiling Grove 18 May 2017 1Q2022 493 87 421 187 58 1246
Woodlands Woodlands Spring 18 May 2017 4Q2020 72 100 172
Yishun Forest Spring @ Yishun 18 May 2017 2Q2021
to 3Q2021
320 85 251 756
Bidadari Woodleigh Hillside 18 May 2017 1Q2022
to 2Q2022
158 143 680 326 48 1355
Geylang Dakota Breeze 18 May 2017 2Q2021 166 117 671 954
Geylang Pine Vista 18 May 2017 4Q2020 136 183 319
Bukit Batok Sky Vista 01 Aug 2017 1Q2022 123 134 257
Bukit Batok West Scape 01 Aug 2017 3Q2021
to 4Q2021
504 118 340 178 1140
Sengkang Rivervale Shores 01 Aug 2017 2Q2022
to 3Q2022
1074 174 678 574 2500
Punggol Northshore Edge 14 Nov 2017 4Q2021 192 196 388
Sengkang Anchorvale Village 14 Nov 2017 1Q2022 104 103 207
Sengkang Fernvale Glades
(+ 273 1-rm, 338 2-rm rental)
14 Nov 2017 2Q2021
to 3Q2021
533 104 390 221 52 1300
Geylang Eunos Court 14 Nov 2017 2Q2022 107 97 538 742
Tampines Tampines GreenCourt 14 Nov 2017 4Q2021
to 2Q2022
192 186 1228 586 2192
2018 18 BTO projects – 15811 flats
Average flat size: 79.09 sqm
Choa Chu Kang Teck Whye View 06 Feb 2018 2Q2022 252 84 238 574
Woodlands Woodlands Glade 06 Feb 2018 4Q2021 285 90 164 90 629
Geylang Ubi Grove 06 Feb 2018 4Q2021
to 1Q2022
120 80 993 1193
Tampines Tampines GreenDew 06 Feb 2018 3Q2021 84 334 308 726
Tampines Tampines GreenFoliage 06 Feb 2018 3Q2021 310 312 542
Sengkang Fernvale Dew 22 May 2018 1Q2022
to 2Q2022
526 218 354 90 1188
Yishun Casa Spring @ Yishun 22 May 2018 3Q2021
to 4Q2021
429 312 180 48 969
Tampines Tampines GreenVines 22 May 2018 1Q2022
to 2Q2022
98 716 457 1271
Toa Payoh Kim Keat Beacon 22 May 2018 2Q2022
to 3Q2022
101 441 542
Punggol Punggol Point Cove 28 Aug 2018 1Q2023
to 2Q2023
504 92 312 234 30 1172
Punggol Punggol Point Woods 28 Aug 2018 1Q2023
to 2Q2023
387 98 333 122 940
Yishun Melody Spring @ Yishun 1 28 Aug 2018 4Q2021 282 252 36 570
Yishun Yishun Glen 28 Aug 2018 4Q2021
to 2Q2022
727 168 490 308 1693
Sembawang EastGlen @ Canberra 13 Nov 2018 4Q2020 83 131 96 310
Sengkang Fernvale Acres 13 Nov 2018 1Q2021 198 132 330
Tengah Plantation Grove 13 Nov 2018 2Q2023
to 3Q2023
522 119 536 395 48 1620
Yishun Melody Spring @ Yishun 2 13 Nov 2018 4Q2020 96 252 108 456
Tampines Tampines GreenGem 13 Nov 2018 1Q2023
to 2Q2023
160 104 492 330 1086
2019 15000 flats planned
Jurong West Boon Lay Glade 12 Feb 2019 3Q 2022 313 64 274 97 27 775
Jurong West Jurong West Jewel 12 Feb 2019 2Q 2022 187 102 157 153 599
Sengkang Fernvale Vines 12 Feb 2019 4Q 2022
to 1Q 2023
437 92 216 148 40 933
Kallang/Whampoa Kallang Breeze 12 Feb 2019 3Q 2022 88 323 411
Kallang/Whampoa Towner Crest 12 Feb 2019 3Q 2023 104 340 444
Tengah Garden Vale @ Tengah 22 May 2019 2Q2023
to 3Q2023
464 220 212 896
Tengah Plantation Acres 22 May 2019 3Q2022
to 4Q2022
543 104 287 259 1193
Woodlands Champions Green 22 May 2019 3Q2023
to 4Q2023
342 88 157 135 722
Kallang/Whampoa Kempas Residences 22 May 2019 2Q2024
to 3Q2024
150 115 318 583
Punggol Punggol Point Cove 13 Sep 2019 4Q2023
to 1Q2024
544 91 371 173 1179
Punggol Punggol Point Crown 13 Sep 2019 3Q2023
to 4Q2023
716 98 501 230 1545
Tampines Tampines GreenGlen 13 Sep 2019 1Q2023
to 2Q2023
330 319 649
Tengah 3 BTO? Nov 2019
Ang Mo Kio 1 BTO Nov 2019
Tampines 1 BTO Nov 2019
Sembawang 1 BTO Feb 2020
Toa Payoh 2 BTO, both in locations
currently occupied by schools
Feb 2020

Future BTO launches

Many people come there from google searches like “2020 BTO list” or “BTO launch location 2020“, as well as asking me such things over chat, also asking project name and prices.

You can see Upcoming Sales Launch on HDB InfoWeb. 6 months ahead we can see next BTO location and flat types available. Project name, prices and the exact day of launch are not known until the BTO is actually launched.

Every town with empty land parcels may have BTO projects, use the map on homepage www.teoalida.com to spot empty parcels. We don’t know how soon a land parcel will be developed as BTO, some parcels can be sold to private developers instead.

Mature towns can get BTO flats too, on the land cleared via SERS. Example: Ang Mo Kio blk 247-252, Clementi blk 401-409, Sims Lane blk 54-60, or Kallang-Whampoa lands resulted from demolition of industrial areas.

HDB announced on 29 August 2013 the Public Exhibition on New Housing Areas: Bidadari (estate within Toa Payoh town, first BTO early 2015), Tampines North (first BTO late 2014), Punggol Matilda (first BTO Sep 2013). Tengah New Town was announced in 2016 and got first BTO launch in 2018. Next new towns to be announced in coming years may be Seletar and Simpang.

Flat supply for next year is announced every December. 2017 supply as announced in Dec 2016, will be 17000 BTO flats. This is a very low supply which contradict with a news from 2013: 700000 new homes by 2030.


As end of 2018, 220550 flats were launched in 312 BTO projects (of which 2709 flats were cancelled in 5 BTO projects). The estimated average BTO flat size is 81.60 sqm and is dropping due to raising supply of 2-room flats since 2013 (for comparison: HDB flats built in 1990s were 120 sqm in average, see this chart). Estimation was done using the standard internal floor areas:

Studio (35 sqm) x 4591 units
Studio (45 sqm) x 5038 units
2-Room (35 sqm) x 6694 units
2-Room (45 sqm) x 21802 units
3-Room (65 sqm) x 33205 units
4-Room (90 sqm) x 109323 units
5-Room (110 sqm) x 38323 units
3gen (115 sqm) x 1574 units

Real floor area shown in HDB Resale Transactions will be bigger because it will include A/C ledge (2-3 sqm) and balcony (3-4 sqm) if available. Pinnacle @ Duxton, SkyVille and SkyTerrace @ Dawson BTO flats are smaller than the standard flat sizes.

Excel tables

List of BTO projects

Same like above table, but in Excel format, allow you to sort and filter by each column.

Free download
BTO prices 2001-2017

A more detailed table that allow you to compare prices of each BTO flat type. If you have any suggestion how to make table easier to use, tell me!

Buy & download


Source of data

2001-2009: Wikipedia’s BTO article, it had a list of BTO projects (now deleted, because it had too much info for such a general encyclopedia), initially I used it to compile the above List of BTO in 2011.

2010-present: the brochures issued by HDB at every new launch. I saved all brochures and offer them for free download on my website too, see BTO brochures.

Later I found that Wikipedia was full of mistakes. One visitor reported that Spring Lodge was not cancelled. I checked the map and he is RIGHT, Wikipedia was WRONG, showing Spring Lodge as block 465 cancelled, with completion date 2007, Spring Lodge has been built, BUT as block 466 (lease commence date 2006, completion probably 2005). WTF!!?? River Edge supposedly completed in 2005 seems that was the one cancelled? In case Wikipedia shows Spring Lodge under name River Edge, does anyone know which BTO has been cancelled in 2003?

Few more mistakes reported by visitors, mostly regarding typo in number of units, have been corrected. Please report any more mistakes!

Note about completion date

Many people asked me if a BTO can be completed earlier. YES, the estimated completion acts like a deadline, in most cases residents collect keys up to 3-6 months earlier. Note that Pinnacle @ Duxton residents collected keys and moved in Dec 2009, but work continued at skybridges until May 2010 scheduled completion date.

Originally I took completion dates from Wikipedia which specify same month 4 years ahead, and I kept adding 4 years of the projects not listed in Wikipedia, but I realized THAT WAS WRONG as most 2009-2010 BTO are completed in 3-3.5 years (6-12 months faster) because HDB decided in 2010 to speed up BTO production, affecting the already-launched projects. In 2011 I have corrected the completion date for the post-2009 BTO, now specifying the “Estimated completion date” shown in sale brochures provided at BTO launch date.

Occasionally HDB show a different, updated completion date when unsold flats are re-launched in SBF, earlier than completion date estimated at the BTO original launch, but since not all BTO have unsold flats, and to prevent being blamed for providing WRONG completion date by people looking in original BTO brochures, I choose to show the original estimated completion date.

Under construction BTO have communities on Facebook and on various forums, residents posting construction updates and predict completion date. Check them!

Some people ask me what is the ACTUAL completion date or key collection date of completed BTO, I cannot answer, you should ask someone residing in that BTO, or check HDB Events Calendar, look for Welcome Party / Completion Ceremony.

Lease commence date is about 1 year after estimated completion date. Minimum occupation period is 5 years starting from key collection date, which vary from flat to flat. If you want to estimate when first flats from certain BTO will be available in resale market, you should add 4½ years to estimated completion date from above table.

Non-BTO projects

Build-To-Order scheme introduced in 2001 became main supply of HDB flats, at same time precint names became standard for all new HDB developments (precint names were also added for older blocks during upgrading programmes, also added at an unknown date for all blocks in Sengkang including the ones built before introduction of BTO scheme).

But such precint names were used for other schemes too, such as SERS replacement blocks. Numerous people thinks that any group of HDB blocks that have a name is a BTO, and when a Sale of Balance Flats is done, they asked me info about “these BTO which are not found in your list of BTO projects” or blamed me for having an incomplete list of BTO launches.

The above list is the complete list of projects sold via BTO scheme, however HDB does build other flats which are NOT offered for sale via BTO scheme:

List of DBSS projects – blocks built and sold by private developers, but managed by HDB like public housing.

List of SERS sites – blocks built for replacement when old blocks are selected for redevelopment, their surplus flats are sold via SBF in same manner with unsold flats from BTO projects. There have been 2 projects (Sri Geylang Serai and Ping Yi Greens) which were built for SERS and also offered for sale via BTO.

There are also projects which are neither BTO, DBSS or SERS, they are build in advance and flats are sold via SBF: Buangkok Court, Fernvale Lodge, Golden Peony (Tampines), Jurong East Court, Jurong East Vista, Marsiling Heights, Tampines Lodge, Tampines Ria. Tell me if you know any more!

HDB flat types and their sizes

Flat type abbreviation: STD = Standard, I = Improved, NG = New Generation, S = Simplified, A = Model A.
Some people abbreviate Standard as S instead of STD, this is wrong.

1960s-1970s flat types (refuse chute in kitchen)
1-Room Emergency (1960-?) – all demolished
2-Room Emergency (1960-?) – demolished except 5 blocks
1-Room Standard (1960-?) – no evidence if it existed, in my opinion should exists
2-Room Standard (1960-1970) – around 41 sqm, one WC/shower (sample floor plan)
3-Room Standard (1960-1970) – around 50-55 sqm, one WC/shower (sample floor plan)
4-Room Standard (1960-1970) – around 70-75 sqm, one WC/shower, sometimes separate (sample floor plan)
1-Room Improved (1966-1978) – supposedly 33 sqm but multiple layouts exists (sample floor plan)
2-Room Improved (1966-1978) – usually 44 sqm, separate WC and shower (sample floor plan)
3-Room Improved (1966-1978) – usually 60 sqm, separate WC and shower (sample floor plan), 3½-Room I Modified 69 sqm
4-Room Improved (1966-1980) – usually 82-84 sqm, separate WC and shower (sample floor plan)
5-Room Standard (1974-1980) – 117-123 sqm, two toilets (sample floor plan)

1970s-1980s flat types (refuse chute in kitchen)
3-Room New Generation (1976-1989) – usually 67 sqm, two toilets, (sample floor plan), 3½-Room NG Modified 82 sqm
4-Room New Generation (1976-1989) – usually 92 sqm, two toilets (sample floor plan)
5-Room Improved (1977-1990s) – usually 121-123 sqm, two toilets (sample floor plan)
3-Room Simplified (1984-1989) – usually 64 sqm, two full-size toilets (sample floor plan)
4-Room Simplified (1984-1989) – usually 84 sqm, two full-size toilets (sample floor plan)
3-Room Model A (1982-1989) – usually 73-75 sqm, two full-size toilets (sample floor plan), 3½-Room A Modified 88-90 sqm, rare
4-Room Model A (1982-1990s) – usually 105 sqm, two full-size toilets (sample floor plan)
5-Room Model A (1982-1985) – usually 135 sqm, two full-size toilets (just few built, replaced by Executive Apartment) (sample floor plan)
5-Room Model A Maisonette (1983-1984) – most 140 sqm, some up to 155 sqm (TWO floors, just few build, replaced by Executive Maisonette) (sample floor plan)
Executive Apartment (1984-1990s) – usually 142-146 sqm (ONE floor) (sample floor plan)
Executive Maisonette (1984-1990s) – most 147 sqm, some up to 160 sqm (TWO floors) (sample floor plan)
Multi-Generation (1987) – 132 sqm / 151-171 sqm, most 166 sqm (ONE floor, 2 entrances) (sample floor plan)
4-Room / 5-Room / Executive “Jumbo” (1992-1996) – around 90-192 sqm (adjoined by HDB, fresh leases), 1 entrance, 2 or 3 full-size toilets.
4-Room / 5-Room / Executive Adjoined Flat (any year) – around 90-175 sqm (adjoined by owners, original leases), 2 entrances unless owner walled one, 2 kitchens unless owner converted one into something else, up to 4 toilets.
(more floor plans)

Early 1990s flat types (centralized refuse chute, no household shelter)
4-Room Model A (1993-1998) – usually 100-108 sqm
5-Room Improved (1993-1998) – usually 120-128 sqm
5-Room Model A (1993-1998) – usually 133-137 sqm
Executive Apartment (1993-1998) – usually 142-150+ sqm (1 floor)
Executive Maisonette (1993-1998) – usually 144-146 sqm, penthouse maisonettes up to 215 sqm (2 floors)
(sample floor plans)

Late 1990s-present flat types (with household shelter)
Studio Apartment – 35 / 45 sq m (2001-present)
2-Room Model A – 45 sq m (2008-present)
2-Room Flexi – 45 sq m (introduced 2015)
3-Room Model A – 60 sq m (2002-2008), 65 sq m (2008-present)
4-Room Model A – 100 sq m (1998-2000), 90 sq m (2000-present)
4-Room Model A2 – 90 sq m (1998-2000), 85 sq m, some 80 sq m (2000-present), only in SERS blocks
5-Room Improved – 120 sq m (1998-2000), 110 sq m (2000- present)
Executive Apartment – 140 sq m (1998-2000), 125 / 130 sq m (2000-2005)
Executive Maisonette – 140 sq m (1998-2000)
3gen flat – 115 sqm (introduced in 2013 BTO, completed 2017), 4 bedrooms, 3 toilets, home ownership restricted for couples + 1 additional family relative
Note: the naming system (Improved / Model A) is no longer used in sales brochures since 1998, but is still displayed in the Resale flat prices.
(sample floor plans)

Important: flat type naming represent approximate size in sqm and number of rooms, NOT the floor plan layout. Do not associate each flat type name with the sample floor plan shown here.
Many different floor plan layouts exists with same name of flat type. See HDB floor plans page for more floor plans!

I saw a list of HDB flat types & models on SingaporeWatch.org as well as many other blogs, I have no idea who copied it and who was the original author or it, but since it was wrong and incomplete, I came with idea to make my OWN list of flat types in 2011 rather than copying it in my website too. At www.teoalida.com I am the original author of the above list. Please do not copy it without my approval!

Block types
Slab block – long narrow corridor-style block with 4 to 40+ units per floor
Point block – 4 apartments per floor, no corridors, being placed at distance from other blocks
Atrium block – a term introduced in 1990s denoting blocks with more than 4 units per floor but without long corridors
All 3 terms are no longer in use since late 1990s.

HDB blocks built after 2000s are a mixture, point/atrium blocks having 4 to 12+ units per floor, long corridors but without rooms facing to corridors, and the blocks are placed close each other so they looks like a slab block when viewed from street.


What is the difference between Studio and 2-Room
Floor plan is similar, BUT…
Studio are restricted to age 55+, sold with 30-year leases, with built-in kitchen cabinets, wardrobe, elderly-friendly features, cannot be sold in open market.
2-Room can be purchased by anyone, sold with 99-year leases, with bare rooms. 2-Room can be purchased by singles too since July 2013.

Studio Apartment and 2-Room were replaced by 2-Room Flexi in 2015 that can be sold with either 99-year lease for anyone, either short lease (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45-year) to elderly.

What is the difference between 4-Room and 5-Room
The difference is 20 sqm, where these 20 sqm are added vary much, larger living room including study corner, larger bedrooms, or in few cases, an extra bedroom!

What is the difference between Standard and Premium HDB flats
Premium contract: tiles, wall paint, doors, kitchen cabinets, probably wardrobes too (not sure), plus better outdoor landscape, and in best cases, basement carpark. Most premium flats have full-height windows, but this is not a rule.
Standard contract: raw concrete waiting for your renovation, doors optional.
Since late 2000s premium flats are offered only in good locations, near MRT or near waterfront.

What is the difference between BTO and DBSS flats
BTO are sold by HDB at subsidized prices while DBSS are sold by profit-hungry private developers at super fucking crazy outrageous high prices.
Beside this, DBSS imitate condos including their bad features, such as smaller rooms but big balcony and A/C ledge, they have NO advantage over BTO flats.
DBSS flats are supposedly higher quality than BTO premium flats, but recent DBSS projects proved otherwise, residents were upset about quality in Trivelis, Centrale 8, and Pasir Ris One.

Beware of HDB naming system!

The naming system (4-Room, 5-Room, etc) is confusing, it do not denotes actual number of rooms, it define the flat size in square meters. The total flat floor area is (too) standardized after 1998, probably for pricing reasons. Individual room sizes may vary very much, for example: in 1985-2000 period, some 4-Room Model A had 3 small bedrooms and a living room big enough to build a 5th room (example), while some 5-Room Improved from same period had only 3 (but big) bedrooms and a living room (example).

Before 1988, all 5-Room and Executives had 3 bedrooms and a large room with separate living and dining areas, Executive had an additional utility/maid room.

From 1988 to 2000, all 5-Room and Executives had 4 bedrooms or 3 bedrooms + study, but Executives had larger living room, sometimes separate living and dining areas.

After 2000, the 5-Room are nothing else than 3 bedroom flats with larger livingroom, while Executive Apartments have 3 bedrooms plus an open study area. Since Executive Apartments were phased out in 2005, the study area was reintroduced in 5-room flats.

My opinion: too much standardization in flat sizes, the naming system (Improved, Model A) should be dropped from resale transactions or replaced with a new name, because since 1998, ALL 4-Room are Model A and all 5-Room are Improved. This creates confusion with the 1970s Improved and 1980s Model A flats, also the today 5-Room flats are nothing else than a larger 4-Room, being the smallest flats named 5-Room in HDB history.

List of SERS sites

Outram Park DemolitionBetween 1995 and 2007, 71 SERS sites were announced. Between 2008 and 2018, only 10 SERS sites were announced, total 7883 flats. At this rate, 306 years are required to replace all 241343 flats built between 1971 and 1980. It is obvious that SERS is highly selective and only a small amount of these flats will be selected for redevelopment.

See also: List of SERS sites in Excel spreadsheet with few extra details. Curious what are the chances for a particular block to get SERS? Click the block icon on HDB map. I also listed below few possible future SERS sites.

Date Town Completed SERS Site* Designated Replacement Site
Street Name Block No. Street Name Block No.
1 22 Aug 1995 Bukit Merah
(Tiong Bahru)
Boon Tiong Road /
Tiong Bahru Road
2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 13 (Phase 1)
1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15 and 16 (Phase 2)
Boon Tiong Road
Boon Tiong Road
2A, 2C
4A, 8A, 8B
2 1 Sep 1995 Toa Payoh Lorong 2 Toa Payoh 145, 147, 151 and 152 Lorong 2 Toa Payoh 141, 153, 153A, 154 to 156
3 8 Nov 1995 Bukit Merah Depot Road 103, 110 and 111 (Phase 1)
105, 107 and 112 (Phase 2)
Depot Road
Depot Road
103A, 103B, 104A, 104B, 106A and 106B
109A, 109B, 111A, 111B, 112A and 111B
4 8 Feb 1996 Bukit Merah Redhill Road 67 and 77 (Phase 1)
71 and 72 (Phase 2)
Redhill Close
Lengkok Bahru
Redhill Road
68 to 70
63A and 63B
73A, 74A and 77A
5 30 Apr 1996 Queenstown Margaret Drive
Forfar House
6A and 6B
Stirling Road 181 to 184
6 28 May 1996 Bedok Chai Chee Road 6 and 7 Chai Chee Road 10 and 11
7 30 Jun 1996 Ang Mo Kio Ang Mo Kio Avenue 1 309, 315 and 316 (Phase 1)
307 and 308 (Phase 2)
Ang Mo Kio Street 32
Ang Mo Kio Street 31
350 to 354
309A, 315A, 315B and 316A
8 9 Sep 1996 Jurong West
(Taman Jurong)
Corporation Drive / Hu Ching Road 139 to 145 Yung Sheng Road 177 to 180 and 184
9 5 Dec 1996 Queenstown
(Buona Vista)
Holland Drive 18 and 19 Strathmore Avenue 55 and 56
10 17 Feb 1997 Toa Payoh Toa Payoh Central 79 Lor 2 Toa Payoh 142 to 144
11 Toa Payoh Toa Payoh Lorong 2 89 Lor 2 Toa Payoh 142 to 144
12 Ang Mo Kio Ang Mo Kio Avenue 10 454 and 455 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 6 700A, 700B and 700C
13 Bukit Merah – Tiong Bahru Kim Tian Road 126 and 127 Kim Tian Road 119B, 119C and 119D
14 Bukit Merah Nile Road 51, 53 and 54 Kim Tian Road 131B and 131C
15 25 Apr 1997 Ang Mo Kio Ang Mo Kio Avenue 3 580 to 582 Ang Mo Kio Street 52 596A, 596B, 596C and 596D
16 Queenstown
(Buona Vista)
Dover Crescent 24 and 28 Dover Crescent 17 to 19
17 Kallang
Syed Alwi Road 3 to 5 Jellicoe Road 813, 815 and 816
18 17 Oct 1997 Jurong West
(Taman Jurong)
Tah Ching Road 135 to 138 Yung Sheng Road 181 to 183
19 Clementi Clementi Avenue 3 439 and 440 Clementi Avenue 3 454 to 456, 458 and 460
20 Bukit Merah Alexandra Road / Tiong Bahru Road 136A, 137A, 136 to
140, 142 and 145
Jln Membina
Kim Tian Place
19 to 23
121 and 121A
21 13 Feb 1998 Bukit Merah
(Telok Blangah)
Telok Blangah Drive 78, 80 and 81 Telok Blangah Heights 86 and 88
22 Jurong East
(Teban Gardens)
Teban Gardens Road 12 to 14, 17 and 19 (Phase 1)
21 to 23 (Phase 2)
Teban Gardens Road 60 and 62 to 65
23 21 Jul 1998 Central Short Street / Prinsep Street 1 to 7 Farrer Park Road 11 to 13 and 15
24 Central Short Street 11 to 13 Farrer Park Road 11 to 13 and 15
25 Central Outram Park 21 to 23 and 27 to 29 Cantonment Close 8, 9, 11, 13 and 16 to 19
26 7 Oct 1998 Toa Payoh
(Upper Aljunied)
Upper Aljunied Lane 1 Pine Close 1
27 Bukit Merah
(Tiong Bahru)
Jalan Membina Barat / Lower Delta Road 24, 31 and 32 Jln Membina 118A, 118B, 118C and 118D
28 Bukit Merah
(Tiong Bahru)
Lower Delta Road 102 and 103 Jln Membina 118A, 118B, 118C and 118D
29 Lim Chu Kang Lim Chu Kang Road 3, 4 and 5 Boon Lay Drive 268A, 268B and 268C
30 18 Mar 1999 Kallang
Tronoh Road 7 and 8 McNair Road 108B and 108C
31 21 Mar 1999 Bukit Batok
Hillview Avenue 1 to 8, 10 and 12 to 14 Bukit Batok West Avenue 5 383 to 386, 387 to 390 and 391 to 395
32 29 Oct 1999 Toa Payoh Toa Payoh Lorong 1A 136, 137 and 140 Lorong 2 Toa Payoh 145 to 147 and 152
33 Toa Payoh Toa Payoh Lorong 1 164 to 167 Lorong 2 Toa Payoh 145 to 147 and 152
34 Geylang Dakota Crescent 68, 70 and 72 Jalan Tiga 39, 43, 45, 47 and 49
35 20 Feb 2000 Sengkang Punggol Road /
Buangkok South Farmway 1
1, 2, 5, 206 and 207 Compassvale Lane 207A, 207B, 207C and 207D
36 Bedok Bedok North Road 83 Bedok North Road 180 to 183 and 185
37 Sembawang Sembawang Road 1 to 5 Wellington Circle 508A, 508B, 508C, 509A, 509B, 510A and 510B
38 30 Jul 2000 Bukit Merah
(Telok Blangah)
Telok Blangah Heights 70 and 71 Telok Blangah Heights 85 and 87
39 Central Outram Hill 14 to 16 Cantonment Close 12
40 12 Aug 2000 Clementi Clementi Ave 4 311 to 314 Clementi Avenue 3 457, 459, 461 and 462
41 17 Feb 2001 Queenstown Margaret Drive 96 Strathmore Avenue 48 to 52
42 Queenstown Stirling Road 172 to 175
43 3 Mar 2001 Seletar Seletar Road 1 to 4 Fernvale Lane 403A, 403B, 403C, 403D, 404A,
404B, 405A, 405B and 405C
44 Seletar Seletar West Farmway 6 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7
45 11 Mar 2001 Kallang
(Boon Keng)
Upper Boon Keng Road 6, 8, 9 and 10 Upper Boon Keng Road 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D
46 13 Jan 2003 Queenstown Tanglin Halt 50 to 54 Tanglin Halt Road 89 to 91
47 Queenstown Commonwealth Drive 57, 61 and 67 to 73
48 15 Jan 2003 Toa Payoh Lorong 5/6 Toa Payoh 28, 30, 32 and 33 Toa Payoh Central 79A, 79B, 79C, 79D and 79E
49 20 Feb 2003 Geylang Jalan Pasar Baru / Geylang Serai 1 to 3 Eunos Crescent 31 to 36
50 24 Feb 2003 Bukit Merah – Havelock Havelock Road / Taman Ho Swee 29, 31 and 33 Jalan Membina 25A, 25B, 26A, 26B, 26C, 26D, 27A and 27B
51 16 Jul 2004 Bedok Bedok South Avenue 3 46 to 50 Bedok Central 219A, 219B, 219C, 219D, 220A, 220B,
220C, 221A, 221B and 221C
52 19 Jul 2004 Queenstown
(Buona Vista)
Dover Road 30 to 32 and 34 to 39 Dover Crescent 28A, 28B, 28C and 28D
53 28 Jul 2004 Jurong West
(Taman Jurong)
Tao Ching Road 103 and 105 Tah Ching Road 337A, 337B, 337C, 337D and 338A
54 28 Mar 2005 Clementi Clementi Avenue 3 436 to 438 Clementi Avenue 3 441A and 441B
55 Clementi Clementi Avenue 3 445
56 21 Apr 2005 Queenstown
(Buona Vista)
Holland Avenue / Drive 14 to 17, 22 and 23 Holland Drive 18A, 18B, 18C and 18D
57 25 Nov 2005 Kallang
(Boon Keng)
Upper Boon Keng Road 20 Bendemeer Road# 38A, 38B, 38C, 38D and 39A
58 Geylang Sims Drive 54, 56, 57, 59, 60 and 62 Upper Boon Keng Road# 5A, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D
59 29 Dec 2005 Queenstown Margaret Drive 6C Strathmore Avenue 61A, 61B, 61C, 62A and 62B
60 Queenstown Commonwealth Avenue 27A
61 Queenstown Commonwealth Avenue 39A
62 22 Mar 2006 Jurong West
(Boon Lay Gardens)
Yung Ping Road / Yung Kuang Road 5 to 10 Kang Ching Road 338B, 339A, 339B, 339C and 339D
63 Jurong West
(Boon Lay Gardens)
Boon Lay Drive 180,181,182 and 184 Jurong West St 64@ 675A, 675B, 676A, 676B, 677A,
2677B, 677C, 678A, 678B, 678C and 678D
64 Jurong West
(Taman Jurong)
Boon Lay Avenue 216,217,219 and 220 Jurong West St 93@ 986A, 986B, 986C, 987A, 987B,
988A, 988B, 988C, 989A, 989B,
989C, 989D, 990A, 990B and 990C
65 21 Apr 2006 Bukit Merah Zion Road 88 to 92 Havelock Road 52 to 58
66 22 Jun 2006 Ang Mo Kio Ang Mo Kio Avenue 2/3/4 246 to 252 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 1 307A, 307B, 307C, 308A, 308B, 310A, 310B and 310C
67 8 Dec 2006 Queenstown
(Buona Vista)
Ghim Moh Road 9 to 12, 9A and 12A Ghim Moh Link 22, 23 and 26 to 28
68 23 Feb 2007 Bukit Merah Henderson Road 94 and 96 Kim Tian Road 126A, 126C, 127A, 127C and 127D
69 Bukit Merah
Silat Walk / Kampong
Bahru Hill / Silat Road
17 to 19 and 22 to 31
70 28 Jun 2007 Clementi Clementi Avenue 1 401 to 404, 407 to 409 Clementi Avenue 1 416 to 418, 420, 421, 423 to 425
71 12 Jul 2007 Jurong East
(Teban Gardens)
Teban Gardens Road 2 to 11 Teban Gardens Road 20 to 23
72 8 Aug 2008 Queenstown Commonwealth Drive 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80 Commonwealth Drive Blocks 50 to 54
(Commonwealth 10)
73 8 Nov 2009 Bukit Merah Bukit Merah View 110, 111, 113, 114 Boon Tiong Road Blocks 9A, 9B, 10A and 10B
(Tiong Bahru View)
74 13 Feb 2011 Clementi Clementi Avenue 5 321 to 323 Clementi Avenue 3 Blocks 440A to 440C
(Clementi Cascadia)
75 9 Nov 2011 Bedok
(East Coast)
East Coast Road 1 to 3 Chai Chee Road Blocks 807B and 807C
(Ping Yi Greens)
15 Nov 2011 Central Rochor Road 1, 2, 3, 4 Upper Boon Keng Rd 8A, 8B, 8C
(Kallang Trivista)
76 3 Dec 2011 Bukit Merah Redhill Close 1 to 3, 5 to 22 Henderson Road Blocks 95A to 95C, 96A and 96B
(City Vue @Henderson)
77 29 Dec 2011 Jurong West
(Boon Lay Gardens)
Boon Lay Drive 167 to 172 Jurong West Central 697A to 6097C, 698A to 698C
(Jurong West Blossom)
78 25 Jun 2012 Woodlands Woodlands Centre Road 1A and 2A Woodlands Drive 70 Blocks 717A and 717B
(Admiralty Vista)
79 27 Jun 2014 Queenstown Tanglin Halt Road / Commonwealth Drive 24 to 32, 33 to 38,
40 to 45, 55, 56,
58 to 60 and 62 to 66
Margaret Drive (Site A)
Margaret Drive (Site B)
Dawson Road (Ste C)
Dawson Road (Site D)
Strathmore Avenue (Site E)
80 3 Aug 2016 Clementi West Coast Road 513 to 520 Site A: Clementi Avenue 1
Site B: West Coast Link
81 31 May 2018 Geylang MacPherson Lane 81 to 83 Circuit Road

* A completed site is one where all residents have vacated their sold flats.
# The replacement flats at Bendemeer Road and Upper Boon Keng Road were offered to the flats owners of Sims Drive (S/Nos. 57 and 58).
@ The replacement flats at Jurong West St 64 and Jurong West St 93 were offered to the flats owners of Boon Lay Drive (S/Nos. 63 and 64).

SERS history

During 1990s, the old estates built in 1960s and 1970s suffered from dilapidated buildings, aging population and businesses moving out. On resale market Queenstown and Ang Mo Kio were cheaper than Pasir Ris, one of the cheapest towns today (source: Resale flat prices database). To counter this, HDB launched Main Upgrading Programme in 1990, Interim Upgrading Programme in 1993 and Selective En-bloc Redevelopment Scheme in 1995.

Some of the owner-occupied blocks built up to 1980 are selected for SERS residents are rehoused in new blocks built in nearby location, to maintain community. Usually low-rise blocks with large spaces between them are selected for SERS while dense and tall blocks are selected for upgrading.

HDB do not give you a replacement flat automatically, instead they compensate you with the market value of your flat, then you need to buy yourself another flat, which can be bigger or smaller, and you can get profit or need to pay with CPF the difference to the price of new flat. I would like to know how people dealt in early SERS sites, where affected blocks had 2/3-room flats and replacement blocks 4/5-room flats sold at much higher price. Since 2004 the residents can enjoy SERS benefits anywhere instead of being limited to the designated replacement blocks.

Although small-scale redevelopment of old estates started in 1966, with demolition of single-storey artisans quarters, the mass demolition of rental blocks started in late 1980s.

Some owner-occupied blocks may have been also demolished before SERS being introduced. With no dedicated replacement blocks, residents were compensated at market value and moved anywhere they wanted. For example Dawson estate had over 100 blocks but only 3 of them (blk 6A, 6B, 39) appears in the list of SERS sites. I am in doubt that all others were rental. At least terraced houses were owned.

HDB resale flat prices per square meter by lease year

The 1997 Asian Crisis affected demand for flats, resale flat prices in young towns continued to drop by 2006, while in mature towns prices started to rise in 2002 fueled by upgrading programmes and SERS.

Between 1995 and 2007, 72 SERS sites were announced. This created widespread rumors among population that any 1960s and 1970s block can get SERS, increasing demand for old flats, people buying 1960s and 1970s flats on purpose to have their block demolished and receive a new flat at subsidized price. As seen in above chart, blocks leased in 1966-1980 are priced higher than blocks leased in 1981-2000. Due to this reason, is no longer viable for HDB to redevelop old blocks, number of new SERS sites announced dropped dramatically.

Between 2008 and 2018, only 10 SERS sites were announced, total 7883 flats. At this rate, 306 years are required to replace all 241343 flats built between 1971 and 1980. It is obvious that SERS is highly selective and only a small amount of these flats will be selected for redevelopment in the near future, making impossible to predict which blocks will be next SERS site.

I believed that HDB is waiting for the old flats to get closer to their end of lease when their market value will drop significantly, then increase number of SERS sites.

On 19 August 2018 HDB announced that only 5% of total sold flats are eligible for SERS, of which 4% have been selected already. For all other flats there will be VERS (Voluntary En-bloc Redevelopment Scheme) that will start in approximately 20 years from now (probably in 2036 when first leases reach 70 years old). Polls will be made in each precint and they require 75% of owners to vote to go VERS or keep living in their flats until leases run out.

Due to rapid and short development of towns like Ang Mo Kio (1976-1982), Bedok (1974-1986), Marine Parade (1975-1978), HDB cannot VERS all blocks once they are 70 years old, so they will be redeveloped stages when they are between 70 and 90 years old. Details such as selection criteria, compensation offered, etc, and how VERS will be financed, are not yet decided, leading to speculation. Many things can change in 20 years, including our ruling party!

Interesting facts

Depot Road Estate built in early 1970s was fully redeveloped starting from 2000 except the 25-storey 5-room point blocks. HDB Press Release says this: Blocks 113 and 114 have not been included for SERS. These two point blocks are 25-storeys high with a total of 192 units of 5-room sold flats. Given their existing height, it is more viable to upgrade these blocks than to redevelop them. Hence they have been scheduled for the Main Upgrading Programme by the year 2000, in tandem with the redevelopment works in Phase II.

Hillview Estate built in 1977-1978 was the biggest SERS site and most controversial. Originally only the low-rise blocks were scheduled for demolition, but would left three 25-storey blocks in middle of nowhere so they decided to demolish entire estate, being the first 5-room point blocks blocks to be demolished, in 2006.

Note: blk 3, 4, 5 at Syed Alwi Road were first 25-storey blocks demolished (4-room) other 25-storey blocks demolished later are blk 110, 111, 112 Bukit Merah View (4-room) and blk 22, 23 Holland Drive (5-room).

I heard 3 different stories about reason of demolition. Political stories: opposition ward at elections, so HDB decided to mix the residents in Bukit Batok. Paranormal stories: estate was haunted by ghosts and Pontianak. Army stories: nearby camp had to be upgraded to high security camp and the 25-storey blocks allowed espionage (however the army camp can be viewed also from Bukit Panjang 30-storey blocks).

Shortest-living HDB blocks were Bedok South Avenue blk 9, 10, 11, 1-room rental blocks built in mid-1970s, demolished around 1990.

How to identify future potential SERS sites

  • SERS sites appear where height restrictions allow redevelopment into 30+ storey blocks. Geylang, Hougang, Tampines, etc, are limited to 20 floors or less, so cannot get SERS until Paya Lebar airbase will be closed in 2030.
  • So far only blocks built up to 1980 are selected for SERS, whenever rule will change and how soon, we don’t know.
  • Look in HDB Map for lease year, but it is when tenants were allowed to buy flats and does not always mean built year. For example Redhill Close blocks were built in 1955 and leased on 1 May 1983.
  • Look in Google Earth / Maps satellite photos for blocks with large spaces between them.
  • Look in URA Master Plan for areas with plot ratio 3.0, 3.5 or higher. Note: most HDB blocks have 2.8 plot ratio and it is revised AFTER blocks are demolished.
  • Look in Enquire status of upgrading programmes to check if the block did not had recent upgrading programmes. If HDB invested in any upgrading programme, the block will likely stay for 20+ more years. Clementi blocks 513-520 (IUP 1998, LUP 2008) may have been an one-off case.

There is NO rule to demolish blocks of given age. According Press Release of 22 August 1995Only a small number of estates/areas are likely to be considered for redevelopment under SERS. They will be the exception rather than the rule. These are old HDB estates developed at low density, or selected blocks which can be redeveloped with adjacent vacant land to give a better yield of flats

Depot Road blk 103, 110, 111 built in 1975 and Ang Mo Kio blk 309, 315, 316 built in 1977 were identified for SERS in 1995 and 1996 and demolished around 2000 (after 25 years). As 2018, NO block built after 1980 was identified for SERS, except an one-off case with Punggol Road blk 206 and 207 built 1986 next to blk 1-5 built 1978 (source) and demolished around 2006 (4-storey farmer blocks that were damaging the modern image of Sengkang New Town).

Height limit matter: blocks 210-224 built in phase II of Toa Payoh, 1975-1978, having large space between blocks were likely to get SERS and be redeveloped in 40-50 storey blocks, while MacPherson estate built in 1960-1965, despite of being older, was selected for MUP instead of SERS because the blocks were packed close apart, and the proximity of Paya Lebar airbase height limit of 18 floors, do not allow redevelopment in higher density. The only blocks demolished in MacPherson were 1/2-room rental blocks, demolished during 1980s.

In 2010 I identified few potential SERS sites with NO upgrading programmes, but most of them were meantime selected for LUP (except Toa Payoh blocks 210-224, Tiong Bahru post-war blocks) while only Bukit Merah View, Clementi Avenue 5 were selected for SERS, proving how HARD is to predict correctly.

In 2011 Redhill and Boon Lay sites had the first upgraded blocks to be identified for SERS, both not technically feasible for Lift Upgrading Programme). LUP began in 2001 and is scheduled to end in 2014. However, some blocks received lifts stopping at every floor during MUP in 1990s, so they do not need also LUP, making predictions HARDER. But, any block that still do not have lifts that stop at every floor is very likely to get SERS. Anyone who spot such blocks is invited to leave a comment!

Surprisingly, the Toa Payoh blocks 210-224 were selected for LUP in 2011, NRP in 2013 and HIP in 2012 and 2014. Why these blocks were apparently reserved for SERS then suddenly HDB done 3 upgrading programmes in 3 years, is a big mystery. Does anyone know what was PAP support ratio in this precint?

Potential SERS sites spotted by me + non-SERS sites that people asked about

Future SERS sites is a HDB top secret information, only few employees knowing about this, to prevent price speculation, and they are subject to change. If there are rumors that a block will get SERS, people will value their flats higher and HDB will need to pay higher compensations.


  • Nobody can answer WHEN a block will get SERS. Don’t ask such questions!
  • We cannot be sure that a block will be demolished except when the SERS site is announced. Instead, we can be sure which blocks will be NOT selected for SERS next 10-20 years.
  • HDB e-service enquire status of upgrading programmes may have errors. In 2010 I checked all pre-1980 blocks one by one and compiled the HDB Database in Excel for purpose of seeing all blocks at once, database which I updated in 2015 checking all blocks including those checked in 2010. Marsiling Drive blk 27-29 and 33-34 showed in 2010 that got MUP in 1997 and LUP in 2004, but now as 2015 the e-service do not show the LUP but only the MUP. Google StreetView confirm the LUP done in 2004. I assume that similar errors exist. I do not have time to counter-check all blocks.
  • You are advised to check yourself Google Streetview and eventually go personally at the block and talk with residents to check possible unlisted upgrading programmes.

I listed below over 20 potential SERS sites with no upgrading programmes after 2000. If HDB continue to announce 1 SERS site every 2 years, and they may announce other sites not listed here, each of the below have less than 20% chances to get SERS next 5 years.


York Hill Estate, there are 8 rental blocks and 3 ownership blocks (8, 9, 10) which got MUP in 1994 but nothing else. But first HDB need to build enough rental replacement blocks. Someone should check how many units are empty, when majority of rental blocks gets empty, SERS may come for the owned blocks!

Jalan Batu blocks 1-14 underwent MUP in 1996 but nothing else, they sit on prime land, may get SERS soon.

Ang Mo Kio

Last SERS site: 2006, so we expect a new SERS site soon.

Blocks 207-208, 215-216 underwent MUP in 1998 including lifts that stop at every floor, but were excluded from subsequent upgrades affecting neighbor blocks, together with block 217 1-room rental and nearby carpark, can free a large piece of land.

Blocks 303-306, 319-321 also underwent MUP in 1998 and nothing else, there is a rental block nearby (318).

No other SERS sites are expected in Ang Mo Kio, all blocks got LUP or MUP in late 1990s or later.


Chai Chee blk 30-40 (built early 1970s) underwent MUP in 1993 but no LUP so may be a SERS site, maybe during 2020s. blk 33-34 got LUP in 2012 making entire estate unlikely to get SERS.

Bedok blk 22-30 got MUP in 1996 then nothing else.

No more SERS sites are expected in Bedok, all blocks got LUP or MUP in late 1990s or later.


Sin Ming blocks 22, 23 24 got MUP in 1995 and only block 25 got LUP in 2009, this may be a sign that other 3 blocks are reserved for a future SERS site (thanks to Low Joo Ling comment).

Bukit Batok

Starting from 2014 I have been asking by multiple people if various blocks in Bukit Batok will get SERS (example: Justin comment). Even if Bukit Batok have potential of redevelopment into 30-storey blocks, there is NO sign that SERS programme will be extended to 1980s towns in the near future, also all blocks in Bukit Batok got LUP, so I am 100% sure that will be NO SERS in Bukit Batok until at least 2030. Residents are spreading false rumors!

Bukit Merah

Tiong Bahru pre-war blocks (built 1936-1940) are under conservation and being the place of pilot home ownership scheme in 1964, they are transacted as private properties. They will NOT get SERS, but may be sold to private developers IF conservation status is removed.

Tiong Bahru post-war blocks (built 1948-1954) are not feasible for LUP due to staircase position. This is a potential SERS site but many people (including me) hope that they will be put under conservation, like the nearby pre-war blocks.

Bukit Ho Swee estate received MUP in phases in 1992, 1994, 1996, then the blocks from first 2 phases received LUP in 2006 (the 3rd MUP phase in 1996 included upgrading lifts so LUP was no longer necessary), although it does have potential of redevelopment to 40+ storey, the LUP makes SERS unlikely sooner than 2026.

Bukit Timah

Farrer Road blocks 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 got MUP in 1994 and HDB Enquire Status of upgrading programmes says clearly that no LUP was announced. However, blocks 1 and 5 got LUP in 2011-2012, making whole estate less likely for SERS in near future. But one day in distant future, whole estate may be demolished.


No more SERS sites are expected in Clementi, all blocks got LUP or MUP in late 1990s or later.

Unbelievable! Blocks 513-520 that got LUP in 2008 were announced for SERS in 2016, at just 5 years since last SERS site in Clementi in 2011.


MacPherson estate, although built in same time with Tanglin Halt, did not got any SERS to date, because of the proximity of Paya Lebar airbase which limit height to 18 floors. However, the 2013 announcement that Paya Lebar airbase will be closed, and the lack of other upgrading programmes after MUP done in 1993-1994 which included lift stopping on every floor, indicate that SERS will come in distant future. There are 5574 dwelling units in the blocks 21-83 built in 1960s (excluding blocks added in 1990s), probably will be redeveloped in 2-3 phases, starting from late 2020s.

Jurong West

Taman Jurong blk 116-122 underwent MUP in 1998 but nothing else, may get SERS during 2020s.

Boon Lay blk 207-215 underwent MUP in 1997 but nothing else, they have very big spaces between blocks thus suitable for SERS, but where the replacement blocks can be built? HDB filled all available land in Jurong West with BTO projects.


Old Airport Road Estate blk 2-32 were built in 1958, they were never sold to tenants, in 2014 was announced that they will be cleared in 2016 and 15 of 17 SIT blocks will be demolished for an “immediate redevelopment”.

Old Airport Road blk 93, 95, 97, 99 built by HDB in 1960s allowed home ownership, they got MUP in 1992 and nothing else. I believe that they may get SERS around 2017 when the rental blocks will be cleared, the replacement blocks for these 4 blocks may be built here. People informed me that carpark is being upgraded with lift, this lower SERS potential, unless they demolish blocks and keep carpark.

Marine Parade

Marine Parade is the most expensive 1960s/1970s estate, and due to this reason, SERS is not viable. I believe that HDB is waiting for the leases to be 60-70-80 years old when flat values will be lower, then do SERS. This is likely to not happen before closure of Paya Lebar airbase in 2030s, when height restriction of ~25 floors will be removed. Where can be the replacement site?


Commonwealth View and Tanglin Halt, built in early 1960s, underwent MUP in batches between 1992 and 2000, they sit on prime land with potential of 50-storey blocks so may be a good idea to do SERS in late 2010s or 2020s. But due to large number of blocks, doing SERS would take at least 2 decades and is difficult to predict which will be the first to be demolished.

Blocks 74-80 were identified for SERS in 2008. After 6 years, in 2014, the big SURPRISE happened! All remaining Tanglin Halt was identified for SERS (3538 flats).

We expect Commonwealth (3384 flats) to have same fate in 6 or more years, the replacement site may be in Tanglin Halt which will be demolished around 2021.

Mei Ling / Stirling Road blocks 151-164 got MUP in 1996-1998, blocks 167-170 underwent MUP in 1993, both nothing else after, while nearby blocks 165, 166, 168A, 171 that got MUP in 1993 too got also LUP in 2009. This may indicate that the blocks 167-170 are reserved for demolition, or they did not had lifts upgraded during MUP due to costs.

Ghim Moh and Dover all remaining blocks got MUP in 1997, 1999, 2000 and nothing else after, since Ghim Moh blocks 9-12 got SERS in 2006 and demolished in 2014-2015, we expect a new SERS site soon!

Toa Payoh

Last SERS site in Toa Payoh was 2003, so we expect a new SERS site soon.

Blocks 1-3 got MUP in 1990 then nothing else, they do not have lifts stopping at every floor, may be a SERS site soon!

Blocks 4-15 got MUP in 1994 then nothing else, don’t know if lifts stop at every floor, may be included in same SERS site.

Blocks 34, 38, 47, 51-53, 56-61, 107-128, 158-163, 168-174 … got MUP in 1993-1995 and nothing else, are also candidates for SERS but not in near future, may take 10-20 years to replace all them, nobody can tell which ones will be first.

Blocks 91-100 also got MUP in 1995 and 3 of them (91, 94, 95) got also LUP in 2006, I would not have counted them in SERS until September 2017 someone informed me that the remaining blocks do not have lifts stopping at every floor. Not being selected for LUP despite of being eligible, may indicate a future SERS site (together with rental blocks 103-106)?


One of the biggest dilemmas about SIT terraced houses in Stirling Road and Jalan Bahagia. Lots of terraced houses were demolished during 1990s but the fact that after 2000 no more were demolished may indicate that HDB is willing to preserve these two clusters of terraced houses, how long… nobody knows.

The floor area vary from original 84 sqm to over 200 sqm, if they will get SERS, HDB need to compensate owners with record sums of money, which will give owners too much profit compared with the price SERS replacement flats. Probably HDB is waiting them to be more than 70 years old when market value will drop fast. I wish to know what was the process of demolition of terraced houses in Dawson estate in late 1990s, since they are NOT included in official list of SERS sites but they were owned thus owners had to be compensated according some criteria.

Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong said in his National Day Rally speech in 2013 that Paya Lebar Airbase will be closed, without giving a specific date, 2017 news report said that closure will be in 2030. Once airbase is closed, height restrictions will be removed and make potential SERS sites the MacPherson 1960s estate as well as large areas in Geylang and Hougang. I am questioning if the 280 meter nationwide height limit will be removed too.

Database of Condos

I made this Condo Database in 2015 because someone doing research and analysis needed a database of condos in Excel format and asked me if I can make it, he told me to scrap data from a website. I choose SingaporeExpats, later published the database here for sale in case other people doing similar research may be interested in purchasing it.

In 2016 did the same for PropertyGuru for another person needing more data, and also for BCA website to create Managing Agent database for people doing phone SMS marketing. Feel free to contact me for other web scraping projects!

SingaporeExpats condos

Condo database, directory of private properties in Singapore

Buy & download


Demo video

Fields completion percentage
Condo name 100%
Condo address 100%
Property type 100%
District 100%
Developer 72.40%
Tenure 80.33%
Estimated TOP 74.65%
Number of units 71.56%
Description 98.43%
Facilities 61.31%
Nearest MRT 100%
Nearest schools 100%

Update list
Oct 2015 – 2809 properties
Nov 2015 – 2810 properties
May 2016 – 3112 properties
April 2017 – 3112 properties, added 3 extra columns
in whole 2017 SingaporeExpats did not added any new condo, whenever they will update condo directory in the future… we don’t know!

PropertyGuru condos

Condo database, directory of private properties in Singapore

Buy & download


Demo video

Fields completion percentage
Project Name 100.00%
Address 100.00%
Postal code 100.00%
District 100.00%
Project Type 99.97%
Developer 74.26%
Tenure 99.97%
Price 64.24%
PSF Price 63.50%
Completion Year 91.24%
# Of Floors 34.87%
Total Units 79.03%
Description 97.63%
Facilities & Amenities 70.48%
Nearest MRT Stations 99.29%
Nearest Schools 99.42%
Image URLs 65.74%
GPS coordinates 100.00%


Update list
Jul 2016 – 3176 properties
Jan 2017 – 3195 properties
Jun 2017 – 3195 properties
Jan 2018 – 3214 properties
Dec 2018 – 3252 properties

See data in action

Managing agent database

Management Corpoations and Managing Agent contact number

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Fields completion percentage
MCST No 100%
UEN 100%
Date of MC Constitution 100%
Development Name 94.20%
Status 99.90%
Development Location 95.18%
MC Address 94.25%
MC Contact No 87.51%
Name of Managing Agent 84.20%
Managing Agent Contact No 75.65%

Update list
Jan 2017 – 4210 MCST
May 2017 – 4253 MCST
Aug 2017 – 4269 MCST
Nov 2017 – 4271 MCST
15 Jan 2018 – 3982 MCST
3 Apr 2018 – 4373 MCST
20 Sep 2018 – 4406 MCST
22 Feb 2019 – 4440 MCST
2 May 2019 – 4450 MCST
6 Jul 2019 – 4453 MCST
12 Oct 2019 – 4464 MCST

More than 1 month passed since last update? ASK for a new update! For best results please ask for update few days BEFORE the day you intend to do telemarketing


While the HDB Database is an original product “Made by Teoalida”, manually compiling data from multiple sources plus personal research, the Condo Database data belongs to SingaporeExpats and PropertyGuru websites, I do not recommend using this database in making websites. Feel free to use it for research and analysis purposes. I am NOT responsible for any copyright troubles you may face if you use their data commercially, making own website, etc. Please consider the price a fee for data scraping service from website rather than author of data.

See also my Terms and conditions.

Detailed data does exist for all major condos. Most old and small private apartments do not have number of units, TOP year, etc. There may be also small developments (less than 10 units) not included at all in both SingaporeExpats and PropertyGuru condo directories.

Description – Singapore Expats & Property Guru condo database

In 2009 I started making a database of all buildings in Singapore, for my personal research, sourcing condo name from map then digging various websites for details such as number of units (imagine how much time would take!). I abandoned the work in 2011 because it required too much effort to be done voluntarily.

In 2012 I published on website a sample of that database of all buildings and also a list of major condos, waiting for feedback to see does worth continuing the project, as paid service for professional use. Took 2 years to get feedback and realize what kind of data people are looking for, I revived the database in 2014 into a database of HDB buildings only, planning to start a separate database for condos, I posted a message in List of major condos page inviting people who are interested in a complete condo directory to contact me.

The first customer to contact me for condo database came only in September 2015, he purchased the HDB Database previously. Incidentally, in August 2015 I found tools that extract data from websites automatically, so I offered him 3 options: automatic data scraping from SingaporeExpats for $150 (2809 condos), automatic data scraping from PropertyGuru for $300 (3148 condos, a bit more details for each condo, such as postal code and number of floors), or manual data building, write condo names from onemap.sg then fill up details from above websites, for $1000 (this way would make most complete database). He said that is necessary to be very complete database, agreed with automatic scraping way, even told me specifically to scrap data from PropertyGuru, but this turned impossible because website display a CAPTCHA after every 10 pages accessed by scraping application. I ended in scraping SingaporeExpats.

SingaporeExpats is not a newsy website but a simple condo directory and it is lagging in terms of updates with latest condo launches, customer complained, and one of my friends (programmer) told me that can make in Visual Basic a custom scraping application for PropertyGuru, so I made him an offer. Programmer spend 2 weeks until he found a way to deal with CAPTCHA but charged me $300 for this, customer did not replied, after a month and multiple email he said that do not want to pay extra fee (despite that he asked initially to scrap PropertyGuru).

I posted a message inviting people interested in PropertyGuru to contact me and pay 50% fee in advance. Someone paid in July 2016 and programmer made a new scraping application. I get a CAPTCHA page every 10-50 pages which I solve myself in order for scraper to continue.

PropertyGuru website was redesigned in June 2018 making scraper obsolete, I asked my programmer to make a new scraper, but this time he was getting CAPTCHA on every single page so gave up. I contacted an Indian company who provide data mining services and they made a new scraper for PropertyGuru, using in-house human power to solve captchas, and gave me data only. I told them to include every possible data from website, including condo description, nearest MRT an schools, GPS coordinates, etc, increasing Excel file size from 2.4 to 10 MB.

I will update myself database manually adding new launched condos every few months, and once per year, ask Indian company to run scrap again all condos.

Description – Management corporation database

In August 2016 someone asked me for MCST and managing agent contact number, this info is available for FREE on www.bca.gov.sg/bcadata/MCST.xls, however he said that this Excel file is not updated and told me to scrap www.bca.gov.sg/plan_enquiry/mcst_usersearch.aspx, to get latest data, but he did not paid me. A second customer asked me to scrap same website in January 2017. Having 2 requests, i believe that more people will come so I made a scraper for BCA website.

Scraping all MCST numbers from 0001 to 5000 takes about 10 hours and it can be done anytime you need. Because most people buy this database for one-time use in telemarketing, database need to be updated at the time you are using it. Because few people asked me to update database promising to buy afterwards, but never bought it, if you request update you need to pay first and I will provide you the updated database next day!

Several people asked me if I have a database with MCST email addresses. bca.gov.sg provide phone numbers but NOT email addresses (if you know other website that provide email addresses let me know). This because email marketing is NOT efficient. If you send 100 emails is likely to have 5 people reporting you as SPAM then nobody else will receive your emails in inbox. If you really want customers, do phone calls or SMS!

The biggest condos (over 800 apartments)

Based on SingaporeExpats May 2016 update.

Name Planning area Address District Tenure TOP Units
D’leedon Bukit Timah 1 – 15 Leedon Heights 10 99-year 2014 1715
Melville Park Tampines 12 – 28 Simei Street 1 18 99-year 1996 1232
The Minton Hougang 2 – 14a Hougang Street 11 19 99-year 2014 1145
Reflections At Keppel Bay Bukit Merah 1 – 33 Keppel Bay View 4 99-year 2011 1129
The Sail @ Marina Bay Central Area 2, 6 Marina Boulevard 1 99-year 2008 1111
Bayshore Park Bedok (East Coast) 50 – 66 Bayshore Road 16 99-year 1986 1093
The Interlace Bukit Merah 180 – 226 Depot Road 4 99-year 2013 1040
The Bayshore Bedok (East Coast) 22 – 34 Bayshore Road 16 99-year 1999 1038
Mandarin Gardens Bedok (East Coast) 1 – 15 Siglap Road 15 99-year 1986 1000
Watertown Punggol 61 – 81 Punggol Central 19 99-year 2017 992
Caribbean At Keppel Bay Bukit Merah 4 – 46 Keppel Bay Drive 4 99-year 2004 969
Parc Oasis Jurong East 35 – 55 Jurong East Avenue 1 22 99-year 1995 950
Signature Park Bukit Timah 46a – 58 Toh Tuck Road 21 Freehold 1998 928
D’nest Pasir Ris 127 – 149 Pasir Ris Grove 18 99-year 2017 912
City Square Residences Kallang-Whampoa 2 – 14 Kitchener Link 8 Freehold 2009 910
Costa Del Sol Bedok (East Coast) 68 – 84 Bayshore Road 16 99-year 2003 906
The Palette Pasir Ris 101 – 123 Pasir Ris Grove 18 99-year 2016 892
A Treasure Trove Punggol 50 – 76 Punggol Walk 19 99-year 2015 882
Bartley Ridge Toa Payoh 30 – 46 Mount Vernon Road 19 99-year 2018 868
Eight Riversuites Kallang-Whampoa 2 – 48 Whampoa East 15 99-year 2016 862
Lakeshore Jurong West 29 – 33 Jurong West St 41 22 99-year 2007 841
La Fiesta Sengkang 50 – 74 Sengkang Square 19 99-year 2017 810

Singapore condo facts

Private properties are leasehold (99 or 999 years) or freehold. First condominium was built in 1974, few condominiums were built until early 1990 and they were aimed to high income people, the apartment sizes were approximately double than HDB ones. Meantime non-condo private apartments did existed, without poll, guards or other condo facilities, aimed to middle class, priced like top-end HDB flats, there is no much info about their apartment sizes.

Since mid-1990s more and more condominium projects were launched, most of them are aimed to middle class, so the apartment sizes are comparable with HDB ones, while non-condo private developments became rare. Like HDBs, condos were downsized too after 2000, some being even smaller than HDB. The difference is made by facilities: security guards, swimming pools, tennis courts… which leads to a bigger price than public housing.Singapore risk to become a second Hong Kong! Since 2009 there is a strange trend of “shoebox apartments” denoting the flats under 500 square feet, and developers are desperate to fit as many units possible, sometimes making units with view to small courtyards.

According insing.com the private condos have been shrunk from 121 sqm in Q1 2010 to 93 sqm in Q1 2013, while executive condos have been growth a little.
According ST Property the average size is is 667 sq ft = 62 sqm.
According PropertyGuru average size to estimate number of units in government land sales programme is 85 sqm and for EC is 100 sqm, as 2012.
Where is the truth? Did someone included landed houses and other did not?

Smallest apartment in Singapore is 24 sqm (258 sq ft), 4 units in Suites @ Guillemard. All other studio apartments are 35+ sqm and have separate bed area. This because of URA which regulate minimum apartment size. However we need regulations of minimum apartment size for each number of rooms, to prevent extremely crowded condos like in the following examples:

Alexis Condo, 1-bedroom 36 sqm, 1-bedroom+study 47 sqm, 2-bedroom 56 sqm, very crowded layout, some apartments have no view.
Tree Scape @ Telok Kurau (site dead), 1-bedroom+study 40 sqm , 2-bedroom 49 sqm, 3-bedroom 56-65 sqm, 4-bedroom 84 sqm.
Natura @ Hillview (site dead), 1-bedroom 42 sqm, 2-bedroom 48-50 sqm, 3-bedroom 59-61 sqm, bedrooms sized like in Hong Kong (2×2 m).

The first condos

Condo is defined by having pool and other shared facilities (unlike normal Apartment).
First condo: The Beverly Mai, Thomson Road, built 1974
First condo with private lifts: Futura, 14 Leonie Hill Road, built 1976
First condo with parking on each floor, living room parking bay: Hamilton Scotts, 37 Scotts Road, built 2012. See video how the parking works.

The biggest apartments

Here are some examples found by me, with biggest regular 3/4-bedroom apartment sizes. Condos having one huge penthouse all other apartments small are not included.

The list was compiled in 2013. Since 2015 SingaporeExpats no longer show unit types and their floor areas… sadly.

Arcadia Garden (1983): 3 bedrooms 322 – 347 sq m, 4 bedrooms 345 – 434 sq m, Maisonette 610 sq m, Penthouse 697 sq m.
Fontana Heights (1985): 4 bedrooms 321 – 442 sq m, Penthouse 1102 sq m.
The Claymore (1985): 3 bedrooms 249 sq m, 4 bedrooms 311 sq m, Penthouse 457 sq m.
Astrid Meadows (1990): 3 bedrooms 180 – 240 sq m, 4 bedrooms 247 – 354 sq m, Penthouse 622 sq m.
Ardmore Park (2001): 4 bedrooms 268 sq m, Penthouse 812 sq m.
Grange Residences (2004) 4+1 bedrooms 2600 – 2853 sq ft.
Dairy Farm Estate (1989): 3 bedrooms: 181 – 205 sq m, Maisonette: 148 – 217 sq m.
Hillcrest Arcadia (1980): 3 bedrooms 132 – 183 sq m, Maisonette 255 – 269 sq m, Penthouse 213 – 235 sq m.

Also: Cairnhill Crest supposedly having 7 bedroom maisonettes… while all others apartments of Singapore have max 4-5 bedrooms. I would like to see an actual floor plan…

Looking for Singapore condo floor plans and sale brochures? Visit sgfloorplans.com

Database of HDB blocks in Excel format

The HDB Database involve collecting data from multiple sources and typing it in one Excel table, an original compilation Made by Teoalida. The database has been purchased by several companies, including home insurance, telecommunication, door-to-door services, real estate portals, flyer distributors, as well as many people who did not told me what business field they are in.

I offer 5 standard packages, containing block number, street address, building name, building type, building era, postal code, plus some specific details shown below. You can purchase a smaller package then upgrade to a bigger package paying difference. For custom packages or additional data that is not yet included in database, contact me!

Instant download! Pay via PayPal or credit card and receive automatically an email with download link (example email).
FREE updates every 3 months for one year! Pay 50% per year for next years! See also Terms and conditions!

If you want to view data of ONE block instead of buying complete database, you can view for FREE on HDB Map.

HDB Database, block number, street address, postal code

No additional details

Buy & download

HDB Database, block number, street address, postal code, unit numbers

Unit numbers

Buy & download

HDB Database, block number, street address, postal code, built year, GPS coordinates

Lease date & GPS coordinates

Buy & download

HDB Database, block number, street address, postal code, number of units breakdown by flat type

Number of units breakdown by flat type

Buy & download

HDB Database, block number, street address, postal code, lease commemnce date, number of units breakdown by flat type, upgrading programmes

All details (unit numbers, lease commence date, GPS coordinates, number of units breakdown by flat type, upgrading programmes, etc)

Bonus: number of floors and units per floor, building description, links to most common floor plans, SERS prediction by Teoalida.

Buy & download

All details, purchase just your preferred towns!

Price: 10 cents per building. If you purchase 3 towns, price will be 9 cents, if you purchase 5 towns, price will be 8 cents. Contact me for discount!

Buy & download
Number of blocks and dwelling units by HDB town
Summary file does contain number of HDB buildings breakdown by type and number of dwelling units breakdown by flat type, for each HDB town, phase of development, town council and electoral division. Does NOT contain individual HDB blocks.
Buy & download

Preview video

HDB Database statistics

Total number of tagged HDB buildings in database: 15092 (after Nov 2018 BTO update).
Database include also few hundred non-HDB buildings (not tagged, not included in this count).

Breakdown by building type tag:
Residential flats: 10779 + 1398 demolished (including blocks with shophouses and no flats).
Multi-storey carparks (MSCP): 1106 + 4 demolished.
Pavilions: 829 + 7 demolished.
Houses: 114.
Industrial buildings: 51.
Other buildings: 649 + 105 demolished (commercial buildings, electrical sub-stations, etc).
Unknown buildings: 40 demolished.

Breakdown by building era tag:
1927-1960 (SIT era): 819 buildings.
1960-1982 (HDB classic era I): 3447 buildings.
1981-1993 (HDB classic era II): 3645 buildings.
1992-1999 (centralized refuse chute): 2100 buildings.
1998-2007 (household shelter): 1978 buildings.
2005-present (introduction of BTO scheme): 3053 buildings.

Number of units is available for 10,645 blocks that were existing at least as 2010, including under construction blocks launched until November 2018 BTO. Total: 1,148,936 units, averaging 107.93 units per block. Every year, new blocks are completed while others are demolished, keeping this figure up-to-date is difficult. 1,047,350 dwelling units are in use as 31 March 2018 according HDB Annual Report.

Data currently included

Block numbers: complete for all Singapore. Source: www.onemap.sg.
(40% done in 2009-2010, remaining 60% done in June 2014)

Building name: complete for all blocks that have a name. Source: www.onemap.sg.

Street address: complete except blocks under construction and blocks demolished before 2000. Source: Enquire status of upgrading programmes.
(30% done in 2010, remaining 70% done in December 2014)

Town / Estate: complete for all Singapore. Town is official zoning while Estate is my personal classification by phases of construction.

Town Council: complete for all Singapore. Source: www.onemap.sg.
(added in May 2017 at suggestion from a customer)

Electoral division (GRC / SMC): complete for all Singapore. Source: www.onemap.sg.
(added in September 2017 at suggestion from a customer)

Construction code & unit numbers: available for 3011 of 14586 total buildings, or 2464 of 2666 BTO era buildings.
In 2016 a customer suggested adding unit numbers. Source: site plans from BTO and SBF brochures, available for 90% of BTO era blocks and for random pre-BTO blocks which HDB offered site plans at Sale of Balance Flats.
I know how useful would be to have the unit number ranges for every block, but this is NOT POSSIBLE. Hong Kong does have www.centamap.com showing unit number and position. When Singapore is going to have the same? Going from block to block to check mailboxes and get unit numbers, takes more than a man’s lifetime.

Building type tag: complete. This column act also as filter, non-HDB buildings have it left empty, who wants a simple list of HDB buildings can filter it to delete empty rows (estate header row, schools, condos, etc). Flats / MSCP / Pavilion / Other + Demolished tags, so the real estate agents can filter and delete demolished buildings, while historical researchers (like myself) can keep them.
(added in November 2014)

Postal codes: available for 12966 buildings standing as 2015 or under construction. Source: HDB Centralized Map.
Personally not interested in postal codes, but in July 2014 a customer suggested adding them, a 2nd customer asked for postal codes in May 2015, so in June 2015 I added them. HDB Centralized Map added info boxes for under construction blocks in late 2016, allowing me to add in my database too at January 2017 update.

GPS coordinates, latitude / longitude: complete for residential buildings.
Suggested by 1 people in 2013, too hard task to write coordinates manually, NOT in mood to do it, but DONE in 2015 thanks to Renata who bought my database and made a script to run in Google Maps API and add coordinates. In 2017 I met Sik Su Wei who made a script to get coordinates from HDB Centralized Map and I integrated them into my database using VLOOKUP function of Excel.

Lease commence date: complete for all blocks available on resale market (so NO year for carparks, rental blocks, or blocks within MOP).
(30% done in 2010 and remaining 70% completed in December 2014, year only, source: HDB Resale Flat Prices.) Since 2015 I started to improve by adding month and day, sourcing from HDB Centralized Map.

Estimated completion date: complete for blocks under construction or under MOP: source: BTO brochures. When blocks fulfill MOP I replace estimated completion date with lease date. Update frequency: when new BTO are launched.

Update frequency for above items: every 3 months when new BTO are launched. Also adding old demolished blocks when I discover them on hm.onemap.sg or National Archive photos. My ULTIMATE GOAL is to have in database all SIT/HDB blocks ever built.

Building year: available for 505 buildings. HDB never publish actual building date, except when the block is selected for SERS. I have indicated the building year in database only for SERS blocks and for the blocks who were leased significantly later than their actual construction date. The building year is sourced from old newspapers seen at National Archive (if possible), otherwise estimated using old Street Directories.

Demolition year: complete for all 1448 demolished buildings. Source: estimation using old Street Directories (1984, 1988, 1991, 1993, 1995, 1998) or Google Earth satellite imagery (after 2000).

Number of units (text form) & upgrading programmes: complete for residential buildings. Source: Enquire status of upgrading programmes for blocks completed as 2015.
(25% done in 2010, remaining 75% ON HOLD waiting for a customer paying me…. been paid in May 2015 and completed in June 2015 (complete for all blocks that were standing to at least 2010).

Number of units breakdown by flat type in separate columns: complete for all residential buildings (about 9500 buildings). Idea used since 2011 for List of BTO projects. In 2014 I planned to use it in the future for HDB Blocks Database too. I decided in June 2015 to breakdown original number of units beside current number of units which is varying over time.
(done in 2014 only for Jurong West for showing SAMPLE file. Breakdown done in all towns in June 2015). Since 2016 I add number of units when blocks are launched rather than when completed, source: site plans from BTO / SERS / SBF brochures.

Note: number of units is VARYING over time in blocks with 1/2/3-room built up to 1990, due to people who buy 2 flats and adjoin them.

Update frequency: I add number of units for new HDB blocks when new BTO are launched, but I will NOT offer updates for block built up to 1990, would take large amount of time to reached every block and benefits are insignificant. They will remain “as 2015”.

Number of floors, units per floor, estimated number of units: 40% done in 2009 estimated from shadow length in satellite photos, before Google Streetview introduction, may have errors +/- 1-2 floors, additional 20% done accurately in 2010 by counting blocks in Google Streetview.
In 2014 I decided to complete database without number of floors because it was taking too much effort and I believed that it is no longer needed, precise number of units became available in HDB enquire status of upgrading programmes, no longer need to multiply floors with units per floor.
In 2015 a customer (Renata, see her comment) offered me a BONUS of $400 to complete number of floors for remaining 40% of blocks, but after doing half of job she told me to STOP THE JOB because her boss don’t want to pay.
I can resume the job and do remaining 20% if another customer is interested in paying a BONUS for completing number of floors. If do you want also to count the 40% estimated in 2009-2010, I can do if I have sufficient time, and you need to pay my time.

Virtual Singapore, a very detailed 3D map, was announced in 2015 to be ready in 2017. In August 2017 it was announced that will be ready in July 2018. Virtual Singapore would have helped me counting floors easier and accurately than in Google Street View. In mid-2018 another announcement said that map will be ready in 2018 for government agencies while public access will be few years later.

Meantime Google Earth launched 3D map for Singapore in August 2018 as it had for many other cities around the world. Even if not whole Singapore is available in 3D, I got interest to count floors, I used Google Street View where 3D map was not available, and by September 2018 I finished counting floors of 95% of HDB blocks!

Anything else necessary? Your ideas are welcome!

History (short version)

I started compiling data voluntarily in 2009, purpose: personal research about housing density in selected estates and use the results in designing own apartments, I abandoned in 2011 after completing 40% because it required too much effort for a non-paid job.

Being a voluntary project done without any specific target, I changed my mind numerous times, making the database a MESS, table layout being different from town to town depending by the date each town was compiled.

In 2012 I published on website a SAMPLE with one town, as marketing experiment, to see who (if anyone) is interested. I was willing to re-compile entire database, this time as PAID service for professional use. I hoped people to tell their requirements or suggest changes in data structure, negotiate a price based by amount of effort needed to compile the data, then do the job… but I was facing with lack of feedback, LAZY customers do not inform me exactly what data are looking for!

Took 2 years to get a rough idea what people are looking for… and resumed working in July 2014, I done A LOT of changes in data structure, cleaned (most of) mess and standardized database format across all towns, completed whole Singapore in December 2014 in terms of block number, address and lease year. Number of units remained as done in 2011 (25% completed), the rest 75% will be done AFTER finding a customer willing to pay 50% before 50% after. The long-waited customer came in May 2015, work started, completing number of units for ALL 10,000+ blocks by June 2015! As customers requested, I added also postal codes in June 2015 and unit numbers in 2016, town council and electoral GRC / SMC in 2017.

Total: hundreds hours of research and data entry work!

I update HDB database every BTO launch (every 3 months), each update taking about 3 hours, plus other updates to add additional data (if new ideas comes in my mind). You can suggest your own ideas what other data to add!

Read more: history (full story) & changelog.

About me – portfolio

I am Teoalida and I love doing research, collecting information, writing articles and making databases about real estate, cars, and other fields, as well as designing own housing models. Also playing games with buildings.

I made this website since 2009 to showcase my works, share knowledge and educational material, promote my services, and make new (business) friends.

All the articles, drawings, 3D models, Word and Excel databases, are my personal work. Except the photographs from Housing around the World section, which are linked to their original source, and the HDB brochures.

I also have few partners in programming, architecture and real estate agents, to cover additional fields and serve more customers when I am too busy. If you want to be partner with me you are welcome.

If you have any enquiry about AutoCAD, architecture, real estate, databases, research, data mining and analysis, or any other stuff covered by articles of this website, comments about my works, errors to report, suggestions, critics, etc, feel free to contact me via Live chat or email image

Housing around the World, research and educational articles

WorldI love exploring the world to study architecture, housing and living conditions, and write articles. While articles themselves do not produce money, they help home seekers, students, researchers and some businesses, increase website audience and occasionally people offer to pay me to do other works.

Currently I have 14 pages with general information for various countries/regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, North Korea, South Korea, Japan, China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, Philippines, India, Africa, plus over 20 pages with detailed information about Housing in Singapore and 7 pages about Housing in Hong Kong.

AutoCAD design

Graphic DesignMy dad is using AutoCAD since 1995, I learned AutoCAD myself while watching him working and made my first drawing in 1998, over years I made numerous drawings from personal interest (hobby) as well as working for my parents or for customers who contacted me via this website.





Housing design – the Virtual City

Apartment DesignThe interest for architecture dates back from childhood but in 2008 I started studying it seriously, making “Teoalida’s Virtual City” with dozens apartments and house floor plans and 3D models designed in AutoCAD, some been inspired from various housing around the world, some being my original concepts.

Apartments ranging from 30 sqm 2-room studio to 200 sqm 6-room, based on an average 25-35 square meters per capita and 100 sqm average apartment size.



House DesignStarting from 2010, I completed the Virtual City with landed houses too, detached, semi-detached, terraced and cluster houses (landed condominiums), ranging from 50 sqm 2-bedroom to over 400 sqm and 7 bedrooms.

My experience was originally limited to making highly efficient floor plans and 3D models, but later I learned to make “construction drawings” by laws, fully-dimensioned floor plans, elevations, sections, as required for building permit.

Although designed primarily for artistic purpose, they are fully livable homes and can be built (virtual city = because I am not a developer, I don’t have capital to build them).

Housing design – architectural services

House DesignThe “Virtual City” 3D artistic hobby, have impressed people dreaming to build a house but also architects, turning into business since 2012. Many people advised me to pursue a career in architecture, but contrary of what most people think, I never been able to earn enough from architecture. Lots of bad customers from third-world countries ask me to do floor plans for free, do not want to pay an architect, and the few paying customers usually waste too much time for the little money they pay.

Furthermore, database services turned to be more profitable, so I have no reason to continue my career in architecture, I decided in 2015 to NOT do any more projects, unless there is a special case.

If you are building a house or apartment block and need drawings I can link you with licensed architects from various countries. DO NOT ask for house plans if you cannot PAY for service!

Palace design in AutoCAD

Palace DesignProbably the most beautiful piece of art that I ever made in AutoCAD, this 3D model is a virtual reconstruction of a REAL, abandoned building, which today was left in ruins.

Originally designed voluntarily in 2006, I improved it in 2009 and 2014 to show you my abilities of 3D modeling in AutoCAD and geometry design.

There are several architecture software (ArchiCAD, Blender, Revit) that can do better job than AutoCAD, but the little money earned do not justify buying more licenses.


Furniture & interior design in AutoCAD

Interior DesignIf I design buildings why I would not design 3D models of furniture and interior design too?

I do not have experience in interior design as high like the experience in architecture design.





Word books & Excel databases – data entry and web scraping services

World Cities Database

I am using Word since 1997 and my dad encouraged me write book-like things, but I learned also Excel myself and since 2003 I am using it more than Word, and today working in Excel represent my primary source of income.

For many years, manual data entry in Excel (sourcing from books, as seen in this video, or manual copy-pasting from websites), was my only way of creating databases. A slow process which limited the size of the databases I could make. Even in this slow process I made about 40 databases about cars, geography, real estate, gaming, etc, from pure hobby.

Starting from 2015 I learned web scraping, meaning programming a software to visit a list of given pages, copy specific data and put it into a CSV spreadsheet automatically, allowing me to quickly create new databases and sell via my website.

– The Geography works, country area and population, list of cities, etc, made in 1998-2005 writing data manually from Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, abandoned after connecting to internet in 2005 and discovering Wikipedia. Improved and published on website for first time in 2015.

– The Music Database with song ratings according my personal preferences, one of the most USELESS things that I ever made, started in 2005 and as 2016 still expanding it.

– The Skyscrapers Database, made in 2015, one of my first databases where I used a program to automatically scrap data from a website.

– The Mobile Phone Database, made in 2016 via web scraping.

What will be the next database to do?

Real estate database – data mining and analysis

HDB Database

One of my biggest research and data mining projects is the Singapore HDB Database, a table of 14000+ buildings with block number, street address, postal code, year build, number of units breakdown by flat type, upgrading programmes, etc. An original compilation of data centralized from multiple sources plus own research.

Started in 2009 from personal interest and put ON HOLD because the potential of turning into a business was under question, after discovering potential of Car Database, I resumed working at HDB Database in 2014 and finalized in 2015, after hundreds hours of work, it has been purchased by several real estate companies, home insurance, telecommunication, door to door services, etc.

In addition of HDB original research, I am offering Condo Database made via web scraping, and HDB Resale Flat Prices Database that include over 60 charts made in Excel.

Another project is the Hong Kong Housing Database, table with 1000+ public and private housing estates, made in 2011 for an insurance company (my first large project done at customer request and not as personal interest/hobby).

Car database – research and data analysis

Car DatabaseDue to my passion for automobiles and obsession for doing research, tables and statistics, in 2003 I started making voluntarily a car encyclopedia, several lists in .DOC format and tables in .XLS format which allows you to sort and filter car models. This include a table with 20,000+ car models sold in Europe that took me over 1000 hours of work!

The hobby turned into a business since 2012 when I found professionals looking for such data, I improved European databases and created new databases for America and Asia using web scraping and as 2015, they have been purchased by hundreds companies including car parts, insurance, shipping, as well as web designers and mobile app developers.

Car design in AutoCAD

Car DesignOne of my older passions was for automobiles, since 2000 I designed side views of few real cars in Paint, also my own car models, in Paint and later in 3D in AutoCAD.

“Teoalida’s Cars” are not very modern or sport cars, but they are designed with as many details is possible, and rendered with all photo-realistic effects available in AutoCAD, to showcase my skills of 3D modeling.

Last car I designed was in 2007 (photo), it took me about 100 hours of work, too much time for its value. Since 2008 I moved to architecture where I can design a house in few hours.

Mapping design

Map DesignMy interest for architecture and urban explorer made me to design maps too!

Between 2004 and 2007 I voluntarily designed artistic maps for Ploiesti and nearby towns, that included block numbers and floor height, vectorial drawings in AutoCAD then colored in Paint and distributed freely in PNG. It turned a high-effort job with no much usage so I abandoned it.

In 2009-2010 I also made a very basic map of Singapore in AutoCAD which I published on website in 2016 and we will see if there is sufficient demand from people to worth completing it with more details.


Gaming – The Sims housing

The Sims 2 planned citiesMany architecture students if they love games, they do play The Sims game. Me too, I play The Sims series since 2003 and The Sims 2 became my favorite game, in which I practiced urban planning talent by building large neighborhoods with non-functional apartment blocks in 2006-2008, before moving to architecture in AutoCAD. I also built over 50 functional houses which I offer for free download on my website.


Web design

I am not saying that I am a web expert, but I made my website myself without any professional help! I have high SEO knowledge that helped my website to be on 1st page of Google for dozens of keywords and raising traffic from 100 visitors per day in early 2012 to 800 visitors per day in 2014.

My coding knowledge is limited to HTML, CSS and WordPress platform. 90% people do not know even such basic stuff, so feel free to contact me if you need a little help in website building or optimization. I do not know PHP so I cannot make custom websites and I do not intend to become a full-time web developer.

Over years I made several friends in webdesign which I can give your projects to, if you need custom website development.

Notes & frequently asked questions

I get often dumb questions like this:
What do you do for a living?
Why did you made these projects?
What is your profession / primary job?
How do you earn money? I do not see any ads! (really dumb question)
Why did you created this website? (question often from Singaporeans surprised by amount of housing information offered without being myself an agent)

Short answer: I created website in 2009 as portfolio of my works, primarily building designs made after a deep research about Housing in Singapore and other countries, and link it in freelancing websites where I hoped to get customers for AutoCAD-related services, but I did not won any project so I aborted. Few months later I decided to publish the housing research too to serve Singaporeans with free information and increase audience.

Early works were made from personal interest (voluntary, hobby) rather than for a specific customer. Once I found live chat software in 2012, website visitors started to contact me and helped me to understand market demands, or hire me for various projects. I abandoned most of non-paid hobbies to focus on working for customers hiring me, and for 3 years I made lots of architectural designs, but website traffic rose from 200 visitors/day in 2012 to 800 visitors/day in 2014, I reached my target of $1000/month in 2015 from sale of databases, it became no longer necessary to do freelancing AutoCAD and architectural designs, time consuming and not sell-able to multiple people.

I moved back to voluntary projects for my pleasure / hobby, but ONLY IF I can help large number of people with free information and increase website traffic that indirectly increase sale of databases. If you want to hire me for project just for YOU, you should PAY me! My hourly rate was 1/100 of total earnings of last month, as my income rose I am no longer a cheap employee.

I never had a full-time job. I made a living by working for customers paying me to do various projects (freelancing), but today most of money come from selling projects already done (online store).

As 2018, per month the website have ~40,000 visitors, ~500 contacting me via chat or email, ~50 buying something or paying a service, while the rest are thankful for free information offered on website.

For “can I hire you for a project?“: think how many other people battle to hire me. To help as many people is possible, I reject projects that takes more than few hours and have NO USE for anyone else than yourself, or I can connect you with my partners offering services starting at $10/hour (useful if you need long-term workforce).

If you are architect, interior designer, programmer (experienced in data mining), or real estate agent, you are welcome to be my partner and I can send you occasional customers. The number of customers that require services (other than buying ready-made products) and able to pay, is not high enough to hire full-time dedicated staff for each type of service people may ask for.

Posting ads on such website selling products or services is stupid. Ads are good for non-profit websites with large traffic. With 40,000 visitors per month estimated earnings from Google AdSense would be $200. But 99% people find ads disturbing, customers may see ads of competitor services, and I will lose sales worth more $ than what I earn from ads.

What is all this mix of stuff on same website?
Are you CAD designer, researcher, database provider, gamer, or…?

I am ALL OF THEM! This is PERSONAL website and my life is very diverse!

Several people suggested making separate websites, one for Singapore housing, one for CAD services, one for database services, etc. This will reduce traffic on websites promoting services. Having all them on same website is an advantage, Singapore pages getting lots of traffic plus Facebook likes and tweets helped services pages to appear higher in Google, also some drawings and databases are related to Singapore housing. Then, I got several collaboration offers from foreign companies who did not visited /design or/database sections directly, they found my website while looking for info about Housing in Singapore or Housing around the World then clicked About me page, saw that I am also in architectural design and data research and contacted me for paid work.

Where is your office located? Can I book an appointment?

I work from home ONLINE to people from all over the world, as typical freelancers do. I do not have any office and I usually do not meet customers. Even if you live just few kilometers away from me, I prefer to not meet in real life unless is absolutely necessary. If you need to employ someone to work at your office, or travel somewhere, I am NOT the right person for you.

Do you get paid to chat with people? Do you help people for free?

I am NOT employed, affiliated with any government or company, or get paid “to help people”. I am independent, this is my personal website and only YOU can pay, for example if consultation with me helped you to decide to buy a $500,000 property, I appreciate if you can donate to paypal @ teoalida.com whatever sum you like.

While chat consultation is usually FREE, research, drawings and database services are NOT FREE. This is how I make a living. If you are NOT PAYING for any service you are advised to not stay in chat too long time (as these kids did).

Take example from this Indian who PAID me $20 for architectural consultation.