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HDB history and floor plan evolution 1930s – 2010s

4A (101 sqm)This page shows floor plans of 100 most common HDB flat types and most representative layouts. Many other layouts exists, unique layouts with slanted rooms, as well as variations of the standard layouts, these usually have larger sizes.
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Most searched floor plans: 1960s 3STD 3I 4I, 1970s 3NG 4NG 5I, 1980s 3S 3A 4S 4A 5A, 1990s 4A 5I, EA, 2000s 4A 5I EAMaisonetteJumboPinnacleLargest HDB flat
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1930s, 1940s, 1950s – SIT era

Queenstown: Princess Margaret (SIT 1952-1958) vs Tanglin Halt (HDB 1962-1964), source:
Dawson estate Tanglin Halt estate

Singapore Improvement Trust set up in 1927, public housing developments were small-scale, until Tiong Bahru started in 1936 and Queenstown started in 1952 and completed by HDB in 1960s. In 32 years, SIT built only 23,000 flats, housing 8.8% of Singapore population in 1959.

The SIT housing was similar with British housing, 2-storey terraced houses, 3/4-storey walk-up flats, and since 1950s, 7/9-storey high-rise flats, plus one 14-storey block built in Queenstown in 1956. The blocks built at just 10-15 meters apart, denser than HDB estates. List of SIT estates.

SIT floor plans

Collection of Tiong Bahru Pre-War SIT blocks floorplans (3-room to 5-room):

After-War late 1940s / 1950s SIT blocks with 2-Room / 3-Room Standard flat, from Tiong Bahru and Redhill
SIT Tiong Bahru 2-Room flat (? sqm) Tiong Bahru 3-Room (77 sqm) Redhill Close 3-Room (63 sqm) Tiong Bahru 3-Room (88 sqm)

After war, SIT built mostly 2-Room and 3-Room, but 4-Room flats were built too in Alexandra North, Silat Estate and Tiong Bahru (at least), no floorplan available. To speed up construction, flats were downsized in 1955 and fewer 4-room were built. 1-Room flats were introduced in 1958, as 3-storey blocks with double-loaded corridor. It also built tenements (blocks with communal kitchen and toilets, opposite of “self-contained flats”), that can be built quickly for the victims of various fires.

Some floor plans of rental flats are available on HDB InfoWEB under PPHS (whole block floor plans, no dimensions).

Landed public housing

During 1950s (or even earlier), SIT also built terraced houses, two clusters survived: Jalan Bahagia (in Whampoa, 28 blocks, 200 units), Stirling Road (in Queenstown, 13 blocks, 84 units). Most units are 3-Room (originally 78 sqm) but on Stirling Road there are some 4-Room (99 sqm). Over time, the owners built additional rooms in front, rear, and side of corner units, expanding some houses to over 200 sqm according resale transactions.

SIT 3-Room Terrace House floor plan SIT 3-Room Terrace House

1960s – HDB beginnings

HDB was founded in February 1960, shortly after People Action Party won national elections of 1959. HDB continued construction of some SIT estates: Queenstown, Kallang Airport, St. Michael, Kampong Tiong Bahru, and launched new estates like Bukit Ho Swee, Brickworks, Alexandra Hill, Redhill, Henderson (in Bukit Merah); Bendemeer, Boon Keng, Kallang Bahru and Tanjong Rhu (in Kallang), Upper Changi Road aka Chai Chee (now part of Bedok), MacPherson (in Geylang), MacPherson Homes (in Toa Payoh).

On 13 February 1959 a fire started in Kampong Tiong Bahru, leaving 12.000 people homeless (source: NLB). SIT quickly cleared the area and built few 5-storey blocks with 1-Room flats and 9-storey blocks as well as terraced houses. A bigger fire in Bukit Ho Swee on 25 May 1961 left 16,000 people homeless, as coincidence HDB completed in September 1961 the Kampong Tiong Bahru flats started by SIT and moved the fire victims there, after few months of temporary housing in Queenstown. These fires helped HDB to gain popularity.

Construction of Toa Payoh New Town (first project officially called “New Town”), incorporating a town centre and several neighborhoods, started in 1965. Note: Queenstown is actually first new town.

The first blocks completed by HDB are Queenstown blk 45, 46, 49, 7-storey blocks styled like SIT.

Redevelopment of uneconomical SIT estates started in 1967, single-storey artisans quarters built by SIT in 1951-1953 at Henderson and Upper Aljunied were demolished and replaced by high-rise blocks.

In Master Plan 1958 you can see numerous terraced houses (planned by SIT and unbuilt) around Redhill and Whampoa. HDB changed housing typology to massive blocks with smaller flats and eliminated terraced houses.

1960s estates composed only by linear slab blocks (corridor style) in most common height of 10 storeys and usually with 12 units per floor, but several blocks were very long, plus 2-storey shophouses. Minimal distance between facades was not regulated, usually 15-30 metres.

HDB aimed to build 50000 dwelling units in first 5 years, so a simple brutalist architecture was chosen, in contrast with the Art Deco and Modernist themes used by SIT. Kampong clearance has been started.

Selegie House (built 1963), tallest public housing at its time (20 floors)
Rumah Selegie

Old photos from Bukit Ho Swee estate (built 1962-1964)
The 7-storey blocks in left side contains 1-Room Emergency flats.
Bukit Ho Swee Bukit Ho Swee

Old aerial views of Toa Payoh New Town, first phase (built 1965-1973)
Toa Payoh Toa Payoh

1960s typical HDB floor plans

Standard flats by HDB had WC and shower in same room, were built in proportion of 40% 1-room, 30% 2-Room, 30% 3-Room. 4-Room were introduced in 1967 at Henderson Road.

Improved flats were introduced in 1966, having separate WC and shower. The Improved blocks feature void deck.

Emergency flats with 1/2-room were also built. Floor plans without dimensions on HDB InfoWEB > Public Housing > Cost Effective Designs. Today, only 5 blocks of Emergency flats remained: blk 91, 92, 93 Henderson Rd , blk 1 Maude Rd, blk 2 Kitchener Rd. All 2-room.

Tenements (flats with communal kitchen and toilet, opposite of self-contained flats), were also built, for example Bukit Ho Swee blocks 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, according blog.

The floor areas have broad range, 1-Room (23-33 sqm), 2-Room (35-45 sqm), 3-Room (50-70 sqm), and unlike SIT, HDB built just very few 4-Room (70-85 sqm) in Henderson, Outram Park and Toa Payoh. I estimate average size during 1960s around 40-50 sqm.

1960-1970 slab blocks with 2-Room Standard (44-45 sqm), 3-Room Standard (50-55 sqm), 4-Room Standard (70-75 sqm)
Most blocks of this type were upgraded with utility rooms, some with bedroom extension including en-suite toilet.

1967-1978 (estimated years) slab block with 1-Room Improved (33 sqm)
The ONLY remaining 1-room home ownership block is blk 7 Telok Blangah Crescent, all others are rental. Some of them are 2 meters wider, flats  6096 mm long instead of 5486 mm, toilet is squarish and kitchen is L-shaped around toilet, having 2 windows (example blk 123 Bukit Merah View). No floor plans available, because HDB never provide floorplans for rental flats.
1I (33 sqm)

1967-1978 and 1982-1988 slab block with 2-Room Improved (44 sqm), 3-Room Improved (60 sqm), 3½-Room Improved (69 sqm)
Most blocks of this type were upgraded with 5-6 sqm utility rooms, these utility rooms vary in shape and size so that is why I posted here original floorplans without utility room.
2I (44 sqm) >3I (60 sqm) 3I (60 sqm) 3I (69 sqm)

1970-1978 slab block with 4-Room Improved (82-84 sqm or -88 sqm with kitchen extension), stairs for each two units.
Whampoa 4I (87 sqm) 4I (82 sqm)

JTC floor plans

Jurong Town Corporation established in 1968 and built 5 estates in parallel with HDB:
Taman Jurong, built 1964/1969-1974, most demolished in 1990s and 2000s). Earliest blocks were built by Economic Development Board in cooperation with HDB starting from 1964, then JTC took over in 1969.
Boon Lay Gardens, built 1974-1978, mixed with HDB, most demolished in 1990s and 2000s.
Teban Gardens, built 1977-1978, mixed with HDB, some demolished in 2000s.
Pandan Gardens, built 1978-1979, all survived.
Sembawang, built early 1970s, 7 blocks, demolished in 2004.
The 5-Room flats built by JTC feature 2 entrance doors!

JTC 3-Room JTC 5-Room JTC 5-Room

Anyone have a floor plan of the JTC 4-Room point blocks (zig-zag ones)? Last ones will be demolished in 2013.

1970s – HDB new towns

HDB planned to build a ring of New Towns around Central Water Catchment.

In early 1970s four new towns were started: Bedok, Marine Parade, Marsiling, Telok Blangah; also for smaller estates like Kallang Basin and St. George (in Kallang); Geylang East, Haig Road, Jalan Eunos and Sims (in Geylang); Dover, Ghim Moh, Holland Village (in Queenstown); Farrer Road (in Bukit Timah), Lorong Lew Lian (in Serangoon), Sin Ming (in Bishan). Construction continued in Toa Payoh (blocks 210-235).

In the second half of 1970s construction commenced for three more New Towns: Ang Mo Kio, Clementi / West Coast, Hougang (only several blocks), and for small estates like Hillview (in Bukit Batok, demolished in 2005), Nee Son (now part of Yishun), Teck Whye Estate (now part of Choa Chu Kang).
HDB also built Rural Centres, mini estates with several hundred flats to house farmers: Changi Village (considered in Pasir Ris), Kranji / Lim Chu Kang (abandoned in 2002), Punggol Road End (in Sengkang area, demolished in 2004), Seletar Road (in Serangoon area), Seletar West Farmway (in Sengkang area).

1970s generation estates were dominated by massive slab block in most common heights of 12, 13 or 16 stories and usually with 14 or 18 units per floor, most were over 100 metres long, plus point blocks of 20 and 25 storeys, and 4-storey shophouses. Minimal distance between facades was 30 metres.

Ang Mo Kio (built 1976-1980) / Marine Parade (built 1975-1977)
Ang Mo Kio Marine Parade

Clementi (built 1976-1980) / Telok Blangah (built 1974-1980)
Clementi Telok Blangah

1970s typical HDB floor plans

In 1976 were completed the first New Generation flats: 3-Room (67 / 82 sqm) and 4-Room (92 sqm), compared with Improved flats, the NG flats feature en-suite toilet for master bedroom, with pedestal type WC, plus store room (source: Straits Times 29 Aug 1973). The HDB Floor Plans 1930-present is copyrighted by

Point blocks with four units per floor and taller than surrounding blocks, were completed in 1972, featuring 4-Room Improved flats (84 sqm).
First 5-Room flats (117-125 sqm) were completed in 1974, in point block form. Starting from 1978, 5-Room flats were offered also in slab block form. All 5-Room flats feature master bedroom with attached toilet with pedestal type WC, the 5-Room Improved introduced in 1979 feature also a store room.

Point blocks were built until mid-1980s, 2 with 3-Room, 26 with 4-Room and 247 with 5-room. After 1980s they still built blocks with 4 units per floor but with height similar with surrounding blocks so I have not included them in above figure.

3/4-Room Standard flats disappeared in early 1970s, Improved flats disappeared too in late 1970s. The average size rose from 60 sqm in early 1970 to 75 sqm in late 1970s estates.

Marine Parade was, and is still the most prestigious HDB estate, also the oldest HDB estate remained intact (no demolitions, no new blocks). Built since 1973, with flats leased from 1975 to 1978, it contains 8079 dwelling units in 56 blocks (personal counting), slab blocks with 2/3/4-Room Improved flats plus 17 tower blocks, each with 96 units of 120 sqm 5-Room Standard flats. Average flat size: 76 sqm, a record for its time (today average size is a little bigger due of upgrading with utility rooms and many 3-room flats adjoined.

1976-1988 slab block with 3-Room New Generation (67 sqm), 3½-Room New Generation (82 sqm), and 4-Room New Generation (92 sqm), big kitchen
1976-1988 slab block with 4-Room New Generation (91 sqm), two units per staircase
3NG (67 sqm) 3NG (82 sqm) 4NG (92 sqm) 4NG (91 sqm)

1976-1980 slab block with 5-Room Standard (117 sqm), also 4-Room New Generation (89 sqm) at lift level
1978-1985 slab block with 5-Room Improved (121 sqm), also 4-Room New Generation (98 sqm) at lift level
5STD (121 sqm) 5I flat (121 sqm)

1966-1970 point zig-zag block with 3-Room Improved (72 sqm or 76 sqm with utility extension)
1972-1974 point block with 4-Room Improved (77-84 sqm)
3I (76 sqm) HDB 4-Room Improved flat (77 sqm) from block 53 Chin Swee Road HDB 4-Room Improved flat (91 sqm) inclusive living room extension

1974-1979 point block with 5-Room Standard (114-123 sqm)
1977-1985 point block with 5-Room Improved (117-121 sqm)
Some Standard flats have long master bedroom like Improved flats. Other flats have balcony at living room. I don’t know the real difference between Standard and Improved.
5STD flat (123 sqm) 5I flat (121 sqm)

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See more 1970s floor plans

1980s – More HDB new towns

In the early 1980s seven New Towns were started: Bukit Batok, Hougang, Jurong East, Jurong West, Serangoon, Tampines, Woodlands (integrating Marsiling), Yishun (integrating Nee Son), as well as small estates: Kaki Bukit (in Bedok), Bukit Purmei (in Bukit Merah), Ubi (in Geylang), McNair (in Kallang), Potong Pasir and Upper Aljunied (in Toa Payoh).
In the late 1980 four more New Towns were born: Bishan, Bukit Panjang, Choa Chu Kang (integrating Teck Whye), Nanyang (extension of Jurong West), Pasir Ris, as well as Estates: Simei (near Tampines), Kembangan (in Bedok), Toh Yi (in Bukit Timah).

1980s towns were composed by slab blocks with 10-13 floors, usually 12 floors, usually with 10 or 12 units per floor, plus the 25-storey point blocks. Compared with previous decade, the blocks were arranged in more rigid patterns, with corners bend to give the precinct a sense of enclosure. Most 10/12-storey blocks were perfectly aligned to east-west direction to avoid sun, while on east and west sides they are surrounded by 4-storey walk-up blocks. Minimal distance between facades was 24 metres.
By unknown reasons, after 1985 only few blocks were built with more than 12 storeys.
Ground floor units were reintroduced, most 1980s high-rise blocks have few (usually 4) units at ground floor and the rest void deck. Most 4-storey blocks do not have void decks, but ground floor units.

Prefab block vs non-prefab blockIn 1980 first prefabrication contract was awarded, raising the construction ratio to about 190.000 flats built in 1981-1985, the record being 67856 flats in 1984. Prefab blocks were built in 16 months, 20% faster than 20 months for normal blocks (source: Straits Times 1982). Wikipedia’s Tampines page says “Using prefabricated parts, a block of high-rise flats could be built in a month” – do not believe.
These 1980s prefab blocks with load-bearing walls can be identified by being uglier, having simple floorplan, plain external walls (unlike normal blocks which have columns visible on facade and windows pushed back). Flats achieve lower prices than ones in non-prefab blocks, hacking walls is not allowed except a door-size opening, ceiling leaks are common.
A confusing thing: today BTO blocks use prefabricated panels too, but does not look similar with 1980s blocks, construction time is double, 3-4 years, and internal walls can be hacked. Probably they were referring that in 1980s they made blocks entirely prefab, load-bearing prefab walls.

Rising home ownership left rental blocks empty. Most 1-Room Emergency blocks built in 1960s were demolished during 1980s and new blocks with 3-Room to Executive flats were built.

The percentage of population living in public housing hit the all-time record of 87% in 1988-1990, construction ratio had to be reduced to 10000 units per year in 1989-1991 to avoid oversupply, leaving some estates unfinished, for example Yishun 4xx with its 8 blocks in middle of empty field.

Woodlands neighborhood 1xx (built ~1985) Bishan neighborhood 1xx (built 1985-1988)
Woodlands New Town (built ~1985) Bishan New Town neighborhood 1xx (built 1985-1988) viewed from Bishan Loft

Hougang Central (built ~1989) / Bukit Batok MRT line (built 1984-1985)
Hougang New Town (built ~1989) Bukit Batok New Town (built 1984-1985) viewed from The Jade

1980s typical HDB floor plans

Along the 3/4-Room New Generation and 5-Room Improved, in 1982 were introduced Model A flats: 3-Room (75 sqm), 4-Room (105 sqm), 5-Room (135 sqm), 5-Room Maisonette (139 sqm), and in 1984 were introduced Simplified flats, 3-Room (64 sqm), 4-Room (84 sqm).

Executive Apartment / Maisonette (146-150 sqm) were introduced in 1984 and replaced 5-Room Model A flats, in addition of the 3-bedroom and separate living/dining found in 5A flats, EA and EM feature an utility/maid room. 80% of Executive units were Maisonettes and 20% were Apartments.
New types of 4-Room Model A, 5-Room Improved, and Executive were introduced in 1987, the 5-Room and Executive having 3 bedrooms plus study room with sliding doors, instead of the 3 bedrooms in 5-Room plus utility room in Executive (source: Straits Times 1984).

Multi-Generation flats were introduced in 1987, on structure similar with the 3/4-Room Simplified blocks, but flats are paired two by two and reconfigured as a 3-bedroom + Studio (granny flat), having 2 entrances and a communicating door. The granny flat was not used as intended so the concept was abandoned after building 8 blocks (source: Straits Times 1986 + Straits Times 1988).

Last 1/2-Room Improved blocks built were Tampines 441, 442, 466, 471 in mid-1980s. Average HDB flat size for 1980s estates is 90-100 square meters.

New Generation flat types were phased out around 1985, but surprisingly, few blocks with 3-Room Improved were built in late 1980s.
Rising popularity of bigger units left HDB with many unsold 3-Room and 4-Room Simplified flats, the last being built in 1989, HDB started converting these flats into Executive “Jumbo” flats (source: Straits Times 1989). Average size of new HDB flats rose from 100 sqm in 1988 to 120 sqm in 1991.

STRANGE, very few flats have leases 1990 and 1991, despite that construction rate was constant, at least 10000 dwelling units being completed each year. Number of flats with lease 1991 is about 6% of the number of flats with lease 1989 and 1992 according my analysis of HDB Resale Flat Prices database. A possible hypothesis is that HDB decided to set lease start date later than actual completion date (confirmation needed).

1982-1989 slab block with 3-Room Model A (73-75 sqm) and 4-Room Model A (105-108 sqm)
3½-Room Model A (88-90 sqm) exists but is so rare that I never found floorplan.
Website visitors reported that early 4-Room Model A have different floorplan, similar in shape with 4-Room New Generation with toilets near each other, but big as 105 sqm instead of 92 sqm.
3A flat (75 sqm) 4A flat (105 sqm) 4A flat (105 sqm)

1982-1985 slab block with 5-Room Model A (133-135 sqm), 2 units per segment
5A flat (133 sqm) 5A flat (133 sqm)

1984-1989 slab block with 3-Room Simplified (64 sqm), 4-Room Simplified (84 sqm) and 5-Room Improved (120 sqm)
A 4-room Model A lift-level version under 5-Room Improved should also exists.
3S flat (64 sqm) 4S flat (84 sqm) 5I flat (120 sqm)

1987-1988 slab block with 4-Room Simplified (84 sqm) and 4-Room Model A (104 sqm)
4S flat (84 sqm) 4A flat (104 sqm)

1983-1984 slab block with 5-Room Model A Maisonette (137-140 sqm, some -155 sqm) and 4-Room Model A (109 sqm) on corners (no floor plan found)
1984-1988 slab block with Executive Maisonette (144-147 sqm, some -160 sqm) and Executive Apartment (146 sqm) on corners
Many people asked me what is a 5-Room Maisonette or what is the difference compared with Executive Maisonette, the primary difference is the building year, because the two-storey Maisonettes were introduced earlier than Executive naming.
5A-M (139 sqm) EM (147 sqm) EA (146 sqm)

1987-1990 slab block with 4-Room Model A (104 sqm) and 5-Room Improved (121 sqm), some blocks have L-shaped corners, with 4-Room Model A (108 sqm) and 5-Room Improved (122 sqm)
4A flat (104 sqm) 5I flat (121 sqm) 4A flat(108 sqm) 5I flat (122 sqm)

1990-1992 slab block with 4-Room Model A (103-107 sqm) and 5-Room Improved (121-123 sqm), 2 units per staircase.
Except corner units, all units are 4A, units at lift level are similar with 1987-1990 blocks, but units at next level up are 4A too instead of 5I, with a huge balcony, units at remaining levels have a small balcony facing over staircase void and big balcony of below units. Staircase landing is at middle of block, making lift upgrading unfeasible. Many such blocks did not got LUP.
First blocks with lifts stopping at every floor were announced in in Straits Times 1989 and was completed in 1992, featuring staggering corridors to offer privacy to at least 50% of units and direct lift access to at least 80% of units.

4A flat 4A flat 5I flat (121 sqm)

1988-1992 slab block with Executive Apartment (142 sqm) and Executive Maisonette (146 sqm)
EA (142 sqm) EM (146 sqm) EM (146 sqm)

1987-1988 slab block with Multi Generation flats (151-171 sqm)
Only 8 blocks: Bishan 137, 148, Tampines 454, 460, Yishun 605, 632, 633, 666

See more 1980s floor plans

1990s – The modern HDB blocks

In the early 1990s extensive construction was done in Choa Chu Kang, Hougang, Pasir Ris, Tampines, plus many small precints in other towns.
In the late 1990s three New Towns were started: Sembawang, Sengkang, Punggol. Construction suddenly stopped for Tampines and Pasir Ris but continued for Bukit Panjang, Choa Chu Kang, Hougang, Jurong East, Jurong West (Pioneer neighborhood), Woodlands.

1990s was a decade of rapid development and innovation, raising the standard of living in public housing of Singapore to a level similar with private housing in other countries:
1993 – all blocks completed in 1993 have lifts stopping on every floor now and centralized refuse chutes, and multi-storey carparks (up to 1994 some blocks have lift machine room at top floor so the flats at top floor do not have direct lift access).
1996 – introduction of yards for kitchens and by-panel main door.
1998 – introduction of household shelters and A/C ledges placed opposite of kitchen window, that double as second support for drying on bamboo poles.
2001 – first blocks competed in Punggol, a town built without corridor-facing flats
2004 – last corridor-facing flats.

1990s HDB blocks are highly decorated and grouped in precints with distinctive styles, ground car parks were replaced by multi storey car parks, this allowed higher density, taller blocks, and a lot of green space between blocks. All blocks are linked with car parks, bus stations and other facilities, with covered walkways, so no more problems if the sun is too hot or is raining. Blocks height vary between 9 and 18 storeys, most are 15 storeys. No more walk-up blocks were built. Unfortunately minimal distance between blocks was reduced to 18.3 metres (60 feet).
Since 1989 structural elements became thicker, 30 cm or more, rather than 20 cm in 1980s blocks, and more pillars per block (I do not know if HDB blocks are designed to withstand earthquakes).

Design & Build scheme was introduced in 1991, calling private architects to inject more variety into public housing designs (source), first project being at Tampines Street 24, featuring curved facades.
Design Plus followed in 1996.
Premium Apartments were introduced somewhere in 1990s, precincts with unique block design, and featuring better quality finishes, you get them in ready-to-move condition, with flooring, kitchen cabinets, built-in wardrobes. In Standard Apartments you get raw concrete waiting for your renovation.
Executive Condominium scheme was launched in 1995, subsidized private housing with same eligibility conditions like HDB (source: HDB Press Release 29 August 1995). See List of EC.
Privatization of the former HUDC estates started in 1995 too.
Many land parcels were sold to private developers, making the percentage of population in public housing to fall.

Rejuvenating the old estates started, to keep them attractive and prevent forming enclaves of elderly people, various upgrading programmes were launched since 1991, which involved building multi storey car parks in old estates and converting surface car parks into green space, installing new lifts that stop on every floor, and adding features on facade to give a more modern look for corridor blocks.
Although small-scale redevelopment of old estates started in 1966, a massive demolition of 1-room blocks occurred in 1988-1989 and continued into 1990s. New blocks with 5-rm and Executive units were built in mature estates like Bukit Merah, Queenstown and Toa Payoh.
Remaining rental blocks were converted, units adjoined, creating what is unofficially called Jumbo Flat and sold with fresh leases from 1992 to 1996. Since 1994 flat owners were allowed to buy an adjacent flat and adjoin them, but only for 3-rm or smaller flats, officially called Adjoined Flat. The HDB Floor Plans 1930-present is copyrighted by

Selective En-bloc Redevelopment Scheme was announced in 1995 to demolish owner-occupied blocks built up to 1980 and rehouse the residents in new blocks built in nearby location, to maintain community. Since 2004 the residents can enjoy SERS benefits in anywhere instead of being limited to the designated replacement blocks.Usually low-rise blocks with large space between them are selected for SERS, while dense and tall blocks are selected for upgrading. In 2011 HDB announced selected first upgraded blocks for SERS (upgraded in early 2000s). Upgraded blocks may also get SERS but not sooner than 20 years from last upgrading programme. See List of SERS sites.

Some owner-occupied blocks were demolished before implementation of SERS. With no dedicated replacement blocks, residents were compensated at market value and moved anywhere they wanted.

HDB stopped deciding the prices of new apartments based on construction costs, instead they decided based on market prices. Prices of resale flats and new flats entered in a vicious circle, rising 50% in just 6 months of 1993 and tripled to 1996, then felt down 30% to 1998 and remained constant to 2006.

Bukit Panjang (built ~1990) / Jurong East – Toh Guan Road precinct (built 1998)
Bukit Panjang (built ~1990) Jurong East - Toh Guan Road precint (built 1998)

Bishan neighborhood 2xx (built 1992) / Pasir Ris blocks 6xx (built 1995)
Bishan neighborhood 2xx (built 1992) Pasir Ris blocks 6xx (built 1995) 

Sembawang – Blue Riverview (built 2001) / Sengkang – Compassvale South Gate (built 2001)
Sembawang - Blue Riverview (2001) Sengkang - Compassvale South Gate (built 2001)

1990s standard HDB floor plans

1990s HDB flats provide high variety of layouts in various sizes: 4-Room Model A (100-108 sqm), 5-Room Improved (120-128 sqm), 5-Room Model A (133-137 sqm), Executive Apartments / Maisonettes (142-150 sqm). Share of 5-Room and Executive flats increased, raising average size of new flats to over 120 square meters in 1991-1996 (even 130 sqm in 1994-1995 due of Jumbo converted blocks.

An experiment with 2-Room flats was done in 1994 (Pasir Ris block 142, having 2-room units on ground floor and 4-room on rest of floors

1993-1995 block with 4-Room Model A (107 sqm) and 5-Room Improved (125 sqm), 4/5-room corner units also exists!
4A (107 sqm) 5I (126 sqm)

1996-1998 slab block with 4-Room Model A (100 sqm) and 5-Room Improved (120-123 sqm), some blocks have some smaller units named 4-Room Model A2 (90 sqm), some have different corners with 4-Room and 5-Room units, others have a wing with 2 units of 5-Room
4A2 (90 sqm) 4A (100 sqm)  5I (121 sqm)
4A (101 sqm) 5I (122 sqm) 5I (123 sqm)

1993-1998 point block with Executive Apartment (144-147 sqm), some blocks are L-shaped with 4 units per floor (3 or 4 different layouts), or U-shaped with 5 units per floor, some are longer like slab blocks and include corridor units, some blocks are combined with Executive Maisonette
1996-1998 blocks provide service balcony for kitchen

EA (147 sqm) EA (146 sqm)
EA (146 sqm) Executive Apartment floor plan (146 sqm)

1993-1998 point block with Executive Apartment (146 sqm), 4 units per floor, two 146 sqm layout and other two different kitchen shape
1993-1998 atrium block with Executive Apartment (143-146 sqm), 6 units per floor, four 146 sqm layout and two 143 sqm layout
Executive Apartment floor plan (143 sqm) Executive Apartment floor plan (146 sqm)

UNIQUE, HDB Penthouse Maisonettes
They are located in topmost floor of some 1990s precincts in Bishan (52 units, up to 199 sqm), Choa Chu Kang (12 units, 182 / 215 sqm), Queenstown-Strathmore (4 units, 192 sqm), (source), also unknown number of units in Hougang (176 sqm) and Pasir Ris (189 sqm).
Bishan EM (163 sqm) Bishan EM (172 sqm)

The only HDB flat type designated as 5-bedrooms, from Tampines blk 498! (other HDB flats may have 4 bedrooms + family which can be turned in 5 bedrooms too)
Tampines blk 498 EM

Jumbo and Adjoined HDB Flats

Jumbo Flats: blocks taken back by HDB, flats joined into bigger flats and resold with fresh leases (1992-1996), they appear in HDB Resale Transactions as 4-Room Model A, 5-Room Improved / Model A, Executive Apartment and you cannot tell which of them are the jumbos. These jumbo converted flats size vary from 90 sqm (2-Room + 2-Room) to 189 and 192 sqm (3-Room + 4-Room Model A), up to 7 rooms (5 bedrooms) and 3 toilets (source: Straits Times 1989). Unlike the 1980s Multi-Generation flats, Jumbos DO NOT have 2 entrances or 2 kitchens.

Most Jumbo flats are in Woodlands and Yishun, few are in Tampines, Jurong East, and Ang Mo Kio (only smallest type from 2-room blocks).

Adjoined Flat: flats joined by owners, they appear in HDB Resale Transactions as 4-Room / 5-Room / Executive Adjoined Flat, unlike Jumbo flats, the adjoined flats CANNOT be 3-rm + 4-rm, can have 2 entrances but most owners walled one entrance.

Two examples of (Jumbo) Executive Apartment created from one 3-rm with one 4-rm, and one example of converting three 3-Room Simplified flats into two 4-rm flats.
Jumbo flat comprised by 3S and 4S flats Jumbo flat comprised by 3A and 4A flats

Two examples of 5-Room Adjoined Flat composed by two 3-Room Improved or by two 3-Room New Generation (NOT a Jumbo flat)
Adjoined flat Adjoined flat

First downsize of HDB flats

Another revolution is visible for the HDB flats completed since 1998: Block naming system (slab, point, atrium) has been abandoned. Flat naming system (Improved, Model A, etc) is no longer used in sale brochures but is still shown in resale transactions, where all 4-rm are Model A and all 5-rm are Improved. In sale brochures, the word Flat was replaced by Apartment, a new naming system was introduced: Type A = 4-rm, Type B = 5-rm, Type C = Executive.

The flat sizes were standardized to smaller size: 4-Room (100 sqm), 5-Room (120 sqm), Executive (140 sqm). The 5-Room lost the study area, being just a 3-bedroom flat with larger living room. Executives are 3 bedrooms plus open study area that can be walled into a 4th bedroom. Average flat size 110 sqm.

household shelter was provided in every flat, a store room with strengthened 30 cm walls and sealing door. Useless feature in my opinion, the shelter eats about 5 sqm, sometimes placed in middle of flat, hacking it is not allowed thus the floor plan is less flexible (some exceptions in 2000s: 1/2-rm rental blocks and some 2/3-rm sold blocks have a storey shelter instead of household shelter).

1998-2000 block with 4-Room Model A (100 sqm), 5-Room Improved (120 sqm) and Executive Apartment (140 sqm), some blocks have 4-Room Model A2 (90 sqm)
4A (100 sqm) 5I (120 sqm) 5I (120 sqm) EA (140 sqm)

1998-2000 block with Executive Apartment (140 sqm) and Executive Maisonette (142 sqm).
Executive Maisonette with bomb shelter RARE, only 10 blocks!! (no floorplan found for EA pair)
EM (142 sqm)

Second downsize of HDB flats

All HDB flats completed since 2000 lost 10 sqm. 4-Room (90 sqm), 5-Room (110 sqm), Executive (130 sqm). Supply of Maisonettes was reduced since 1990s due of aging people (source: Straits Times 1989) and the last maisonette was completed in 2000.

In attempt to minimize number of corridor-facing flats, the shape of blocks became complex, with many corners containing 5-Room units, their number exceeded the number 4-Room units built in 2002 and 2003, so the average flat size remained high as 105 sqm in 2000-2005.

2000-2004 block with 4-Room Model A (90 sqm), 5-Room Improved (110 sqm) and Executive Apartment (130 sqm in 2000-2002, 125 sqm in 2003-2004)
4A (90 sqm) 5I (110 sqm) EA (125 sqm)

See more 1990s floor plans

2000s – The decline

During 2000s, no other New Town or Estate were started. Construction continue only in existing estates. Taller and taller blocks were built in all estates not too close to airports to have height constraints. 30-storey complexes appeared since late 1990s, and the first 40-storey complex (Toa Payoh Towers) was completed in early 2005 (source).

The demand for new flats felt sharply after 1997 Asian Crisis. 2003 SARS outbreak and low immigration rate in early 2000s also slowed down the demand for flats. This happened right after the most prosperous decade, with 24000-36000 flats completed each year between 1994 and 2001. The queue, once 5 years long, vanished and left about 40000 unsold completed flats in the year 2000, most of them being 5-Room and Executive.

The Registration for Flat (queue selling system) was suspended in 2002.

Walk In Selection has been introduced in March 2002 to help clearing the stock of unsold flats. It ended in February 2007 and was replaced by Quarter-Yearly Sale of 2/3-Room flats and Half-Yearly Sale of 4-Room and bigger flats, which in 2010 were combined in Sale of Balance Flats, containing leftover flats from past BTO and SERS projects, plus old flats repurchased by HDB. Some flats are completed and available without waiting time, SOBF draws much interest, the battle being about 10 people per each flat.

Build-To-Order was introduced in April 2001 and became main supply of flats. Flats are offered for sale before being built. Tender for construction is called only if at least 70% of units have been booked (50% since 2011), otherwise the project is canceled and may be re-launched when will be more demand, with a different name and sometimes different design. The first projects enjoyed low interest, 5 of them being cancelled, but after Walk in Selection ended, most BTO projects were oversubscribed, from 2008 HDB launch 2 BTO projects every month. See list of BTO launches.

BTO system prevent HDB to built surplus of units, but it created a lag in housing supply, leading to rising flat prices since 2007. BTO system give you the advantage of choosing exact location of your home and estimated completion date (3-4-5 years, depending by development size), but the disadvantage is that some people apply multiple times until get the luck to pass the ballot exercise.

Design, Build and Sell Scheme are public housing built and sold by private developers, it feature condo-style facades, but without guards, pool, or other condo facilities, it is still public housing! First DBSS project was launched in 2006 and completed in 2009. DBSS land sales were suspended in July 2011 after the Sim Lian Group, developer of Centrale 8 (8th DBSS) set outrageous prices around $880.000 for 5-Room. 13 land parcels were sold for DBSS, totaling about 9000 apartments. See list of DBSS projects.

Punggol 21 was announced in 1996 and got first residents in 2001, a modern waterfront town featuring a mix of high-end HDB and Executive Condos, it is the first HDB town where each precint is individually designed and feature integrated carparks with green roofs, and no corridor-facing units. But due of Asian Crisis, it turned into a ghost town with many unsold flats and no amenities. As 31 March 2004 it had 3768 4-Room, 10031 5-Room, 1126 Executive units, then construction was very slow until 2010. The LRT line east loop opened in 2005 while the west loop is still unopened as 2014.

Pungool 21+ was announced in 2007 to rejuvenate the town, involving building a waterway through undeveloped part of town, amenities and low-end BTO projects with 2/3/4-room units. Imagine that if the crisis would never hit, Punggol was developed with big flats but without waterway!

Bukit Batok West Avenue 5 (2005) / The River Vista @ Kallang (2010)
Bukit Batok West Avenue 5 (built 2005) The River Vista @ Kallang (2010)

Punggol – Edgedale Green and Periwinkle (2007)
Punggol - Edgedale Green (built 2008) Punggol - Periwinkle (built 2007)

2000s random HDB floor plans

Along 4-Room (90 sqm) and 5-Room (110 sqm), HDB reintroduced 3-Room (60 sqm, later 65 sqm) and 2-Room (35/45 sqm). Officially 3-Room was introduced in BTO Fernvale Grove in 2004 (completed 2008) but actually there are 3-room completed early as 2002 (Cantonment Towers, SERS project).

Studio Apartments (35/45 sqm) were introduced in 1998 for people aged over 55, they are sold with 30-year leases and cannot be sold in resale market. Originally were built in all-studio blocks, but from 2006 were mixed in BTOs with normal 3-, 4-, 5-room units.

HDB made a surprise decision in 1995 to close the registration queue for Executive flats, shortly after introduction of Executive Condominiums. Last EA was completed in 2004, last EM in 2000, for people in the queue. A common misconception is that Executive Apartment were replaced by Executive Condos. NO, Executive Condo flats are privately-built in variety of sizes from 50 to 300 sqm.

Due of many unsold flats, very few 5-Room were completed in 2007-2009. Economy recovered in late 2000s, HDB raised production of 5-Room flats but do not reintroduce Executive Apartments, motivating that these flats were purchased by rich families who can afford too much space for no reason, also the average household size dropped thus larger flats are no longer necessary.

The average size of new flats dropped from 105 sqm in 2000-2005 to 90 sqm in 2007 and around 80 sqm later.

HDB resumed building rental blocks in 2007, corridor-style with 1- and 2-room apartments, in 2007, for people who are unable to own a flat.

Each 2000s project is unique designed, but most flats feature similar circular pattern: living – common bedrooms – master bedroom – bathrooms – kitchen, but with a lot of variations in room sizes and windows, there are variations even from one floor to another floor of same block, so I cannot post on my website all possible floor plans. 2000s flats offer full privacy (except rental blocks). Flats with rooms facing to corridor were built in small numbers until 2004 lease year. First BTO project was completed in 2005 and got lease from 2006, so all BTOs offer full privacy. Compared with 1990s flats, the layouts were improved, bedrooms were downsized in favor of larger living room, the study area returned in 5-room flats, and common toilet entrance is no longer in kitchen.

Looking for floor plan of certain flat? Do a Google search with street or precinct name (rather than block number). Look on or other forums, where people post their floor plans asking for renovation ideas, or buy from HDB for $5Do not ask me for floor plan because is unlikely to have and give you the correct floor plan, I do not have more than what can yourself steal from forums.

Typical floor from 2000s: Studio (35 / 45 sqm), 3-Room (65 sqm), 4-room (90 sqm), from Eunos Court and Kallang Heights SERS projects. BTO projects use similar layouts
SA (35 sqm) SA (45 sqm) 3-Room (65 sqm) 4-Room (90 sqm)

2003-2004 Punggol floor plans: 5-Room (114 sqm) and Executive (128 sqm), oversized living room
5-Room (110 sqm) EA (128 sqm)

Pinnacle @ Duxton, the first 50-storey public housing complex, was completed in December 2009, as HDB anniversary 50 years of history in February 2010. It is the biggest BTO project, having 1848 units (7 blocks × 44 residential floors × 6 units per floor), 2 levels of skybridges, 2 flat types (S1 4-Room 90-93 sqm and S2 5-room 103-106 sqm), different combinations of bay windows, balconies and planters create 35 distinct flat layouts.

Nice find! – full complex floor plan and elevations.

Pinnacle@Duxton 4-Room Pinnacle @ Duxton Pinnacle@Duxton 5-Room

See more 2000s floor plans

2010s – Today trends

Three new housing areas were announced in HDB Press Release in 2013: Bidadari Estate (within Toa Payoh planning area), Tampines North and Punggol Matilda. NO new town was officially announced so far. Additional construction is done in Bukit Batok (west end), Choa Chu Kang (south end), Yishun (east side) and Sembawang (very ulu area). The planning work for Bidadari started in 2012 and may get first BTO launches in 2015.

Some unreferenced info on Wikipedia state that after the current New Towns will be saturated, HDB will start Tengah, Simpang, Bukit Brown, Bidadari and Seletar… this info may have been extracted from Concept Plan 2011 but the Concept Plan itself seems that was not yet published as 2013.

BUT in my opinion is not possible to start a new town using the current BTO system, flats sold before being built. Who the fuck will apply for a BTO flat located in middle of nowhere, without knowing how many other blocks or amenities will be launched nearby? The single solution is to start building NOW and sell them through SOBF when some amenities are at least planned! Proof: the very low 0.4 application ratio for May 2013 BTOs in ulu corner of Sembawang.

The demand for HDB flats is very strong nowadays. HDB ramped up BTO supply too late, from 9000 flats in 2009 to 25000 flats in 2011. Since Walk-in Selection ended in 2007, many citizens who are eligible for new flats but do not accept the 3-4 year waiting time of BTO system, turn to resale market, THIS caused the resale flat prices to double from 2007 to 2012 and the prices of new flats grew according to resale prices.

2010s flats

SkyVille & SkyTerrace @ Dawson, two iconic BTO projects were launched in December 2009. SkyTerrace feature lofts and paired units (similar with dual-key units in condos), this design caused some waste of floor space of the already too small and too expensive apartments. They are most expensive HDB flats ever offered for sale, due of prime location near Queenstown MRT, and were still oversubscribed (9865 applications for all 1718 units, up to 12 applicants for each 5-rm unit, but in case of 3-rm units were slightly less applicants than units). Flats are even smaller than in Pinnacle@Duxton, to 83 sqm for 4-rm and 101 sqm for 5-rm.

Other BTO projects of 2010s decade remained at the standard sizes 45 / 65 / 90 / 110 sqm (excluding balcony and A/C ledge). Due of high demand for 5-room, the average flat size rose from 80 sqm for BTO flats launched in 2009 to 85 sqm for BTO flats launched in 2012.

Meantime, private developers continue to downsize their flats, affecting DBSS projects too, for example Trivelis use 60 / 80-82 / 105 sqm. Of the 105 sqm 5-room, only 88 sqm is internal, be shocked at floor plan! If they specify balcony size 12 sqm, living room should be 3×5 m, common bedrooms 3×2.5 m, study 2x2m.

For first time in 15 years, HDB launched a bigger flat type in July 2013 BTO: 3gen flats having 4 bedrooms and 3 bathrooms in 115 sqm (following a trend started by Executive Condominiums offering 5-bedroom flats). Room sizes can be compared with the 4-room flats, having slightly larger living room, an extra 15 sqm bedroom and 5 sqm bath.

Since Executive flats are no longer built because they were often purchases by small but rich families, the 3gen flats with eligibility restricted to a married couple plus another family relative, are welcome in my opinion!

New Generation of Public Housing, the SkyVille and SkyTerrace @ Dawson Punggol Waterway Terraces

Skyville @ Dawson, smallest 4-Room BTO flat (83 sqm) – new 3gen flat introduced in 2013
SkyVille @ Dawson 4-room 3gen flat

More USEFUL info

What is HDB ceiling height

HDB floor-to-floor standard is 2.80 meters, ceiling height is 2.60 m except top floor in some 1990s blocks which is 2.90 m, I need confirmation if in other decades the top floor have taller ceiling than 2.60 m standard.

How to find the age of a HDB block

Use Resale Flat Prices, by this way you also see which flat types available in the block, and their areas. Does not work for rental blocks.
Note: you cannot find the age of block, you will find the Lease commence date, which is more important than block building year. Lease year correspond with building year + 1, with few exceptions (see below).

See also Status of HDB upgrading programmes, showing number of units in any block, too bad that they do not display the building year too, as upgrading programmes are usually done by the year of being built.

The only case when HDB publish the real year when a block was built, is when the blocks are selected for SERS.

What is Lease Commence Date

Is when the 99-year lease starts… and the years used by me in naming the floor plans are Lease Commence Date, NOT launch date or construction finishing date. Construction time lasted 2-3 years in 1990s. Household shelter appeared in HDB Annual Report 1996 and first blocks have leases from 1998.

Lease starts usually after up to 1 year from when construction is finished, this rule does not apply for pre-1973 blocks, in which Lease Commence Date is the year in which HDB decided to sell / allowed tenants to buy their flats. Tiong Bahru blocks built in 1948-1954 blocks have leases from 1973, Redhill blocks built in 1955 have leases from 1983, some 1970s 2-Room blocks were reserved for rental until 1986, the blocks converted during 1990s into Jumbo flats have leases from the year of conversion.

Home Ownership Scheme was introduced in 1964, but oldest HDB leases are from 1967. HOS was piloted in Tiong Bahru pre-war blocks in 1965-1967 and people could use CPF to purchase their flats, they are also the only SIT/HDB flats transacted as private properties (source: So, in 1967 they realized how to implement HOS without privatization?

What happen when 99-year lease expire

Nobody knows. Lorong 3 Geylang houses are the first leases to end in 2020 (private, 60-year lease). Let’s wait and we will see what happens!
Why do you care? Oldest HDB leases are from 1967, and most of 1960s HDBs have been already demolished, most condos are en-bloc after only 20-30 years. It’s unlikely for a HDB flat to reach the end of lease in 2060s, considering that the blocks are not structurally designed to stand 100 years, but I cannot imagine how Singapore will look like 50 years from now, too many blocks were built since 1980s onward to replace them.

I remember a funny guy saying in a forum that Freehold property remains yours forever while a Leasehold means that you will be kicked out at end of lease, and another guy correcting him: Government can takeover both leasehold and freehold properties, but only freehold owners are rewarded at full value. Also owners can apply for lease extension.

How urban planning in Singapore was done

Since 1960 to 1990s all HDB towns were planned using a standard density of 200 dwelling units per hectare. Flat sizes were growing over the years, leading to a stupid situation: the blocks with big flats were closest apart, they were inhabited by richer people who were expecting more privacy and more space to park their cars… while the 1-room rental flats had largest spaces and empty carparks.

Since 1990s (not sure exact year), urban planning control is done using plot ratio (gross floor area divided by land area). To create a vibrant city, low-, medium and high-density areas were created.

The ratios were revised and raised in Master Plan 1998, today most public housing are in 2.8 – 4.2 range, low-density condos are low as 1.4 and office buildings in Central Business District reach a plot ratio of 12.

How many New Towns built HDB in Singapore

Usually is said that 27, but this is the number of Planning Areas-based “Towns”, do not confuse with “New Towns” .

Based on construction stages:
Singapore Improvement Trust (SIT) and Housing and Development Board (HDB) built 20 New Towns (10000-70000 units) and about 70 small estates (under 10000 units).
Economic Development Board (EDB) built in 1964-1968 and Jurong Town Corporation (JTC) built in 1968 and late 1970s a small number of blocks for low-income people, in Jurong and Sembawang industrial areas.
Housing and Urban Development Company (HUDC) built between 1974 and 1987 21 estates totalling about 9500 units, of which 18 estates sandwich housing for middle-income people who did not qualify for HDB flats but could not afford a private property, plus other 3 estates for Ministry of Finance and Singapore Armed Forces. List of HUDC estates.

HDB took over JTC and HUDC in 1982, becoming sole provider of public housing in Singapore. HDB built few more HUDC estates up to 1986.
The HDB Annual Report up to 1989 display a list of about 100 estates.

URA defined 55 Planning Areas in 1991, HDB New Towns and Estates were reorganized into 20 “Towns” and 11 “Other Estates” in AR 1990, few years later the other estates were regrouped into 6, of which Sembawang and Sengkang were turned into “towns”  in AR 1996, Punggol was added in AR 1999, Lim Chu Kang was demolished, reaching today figure of 23 towns and 3 estates .There is no relation between Planning Areas / Towns and historical development HDB New Towns / Estates.

The current 26 HDB Towns and Estates match the URA planning areas with 2 exceptions:
– Kallang-Whampoa is one HDB town stretching on 3 planning areas (Kallang, Whampoa, Novena)
– Pasir Ris town also include Changi Village (from Changi planning area)

More notes:
– Geylang, Kallang-Whampoa and Bukit Merah towns contains several HDB estates built inside of the main city, which cannot be considered “New Towns”.
– Tampines planning area includes 2 HDB New Towns: Tampines and Simei (I’m doubt to call Simei a New Town, it is only 7036 units, less than Marine Parade Estate).
– Lim Chu Kang estate is no longer in use since 2001, but it kept appearing on HDB Resale Flat Prices e-service until 2009, making total of 27 towns.


About me

I wrote this article from my own personal research since 2009, because others (including Wikipedia) are incomplete, not detailed, create confusion and may contain errors. Please do not copy any part of page TEXT without my approval. Photographs are from Panoramio, Wikipedia, etc and are linked to their original source. Feel free to use the HDB floor plans, for using photographs you may want to ask permission to their original authors. List of page updates.

How I got floor plans?

During the initial research in 2009, I took floor plans from October 2009 Sale of Balance Flats, copying images from PDF brochures (one PDF per town, few hundred floor plans to choose from). I choose 52 images, the ones with yellow-cream background, about 400-600 pixels tall, 29 pixels per meter. Additional floor plans were collected from random forums and blogs, reaching 100 images in 2012, some PNG, some JPG, different image resolution and scan quality, the page looked like a shit!

Floor plans were displayed on site resized with HTML code “height=200px” so anyone accessing the page, had to download 20 MB of full-size images, growing website traffic caused excessive server load.

In 2014, to reduce bandwidth usage and improve website design, I re-made the floor plans taking them from March 2012 Sale of Balance Flats (1000+ floor plans to choose from, each on separate PDF file, took me about 20 hours to download all PDFs). I took screenshot of PDF file at 100% zoom, cropped image in Paint then added the info bar at bottom. Full-size images about 600-1000 pixels tall (44 pixels per meter), and thumbnail images at 1/4 size. Page size: 8 MB.

See comparison: OLD vs NEW floor plans.

The floor plan collection is far away from being “complete”

This page was intended as educational material, showing HDB history and evolution of typical floor plans, but the audience is mostly resale flat buyers than students, they believe that this is / they want this to be a complete collection HDB floor plans, no matter how many floor plans I post, they want more!

Lots of variations exists. Example: 3-Room New Generation flat (67 sqm), the units that are not next to staircase do not have that thick wall, units that are not next to corridor-end unit do not display a second door on corridor, all these 4 can be mirrored, total 8 possible floor plans. I can post over 1000 floor plan variations, and no one will know how many other variations exists. This would overload website and will create trouble for people trying to find a basic floor plan.

Occasionally I get emails from “contributors” sending me their own floor plan (in most cases, too similar with one posted already, or too rare to worth posting), other people complain that the website is cluttered. This is why I decided in late 2012 to STOP adding more content unless there is something special.

The 100 floor plans displayed in this article represent 90% of all HDB flat types built before BTO era.

Statistics: most downloaded HDB floor plans 2012 (July-August 2012), most downloaded HDB floor plans 2014 (April-July 2014).
I may delete least clicked images to improve usefulness of website.

I have in my computer over 1000 floor plans saved from HDB website at every Sale of Balance Flats, or collected from various forums. Due of the massive effort needed to collect them and high valuable, I am selling my floor plan collection!

Do note that this is complete floor plan collection of the flats sold at SBF, not complete collection of all possible HDB floor plans.

Trouble finding floor plan of a certain block? Have a floor plan but do not know where it is located?

Provide me block number or floor plan image. I am happy to help up to 5 people per day for FREE.
I have in my computer over 1000 floor plans saved from HDB website at SBF launches or collected from various forums.
If you ask about a flat built before 2000s, there are 90% chances to have a similar floor plan, but in case of BTO flats and 1990s premium projects the chances are less than 20%. Do not ask me floor plans of blocks under construction, floor plans with dimensions are provided at key collection, not earlier. I can give you PDF brochures, without dimensions.
I have high experience in HDB architecture so I can identify flat types in 99% of HDB blocks just by looking in satellite photos, eventually street view, takes 5 min to provide you possible floor plan (if I have), you get a rough idea of flat layout before purchasing, but I offer NO guarantee that will be 100% matching / correct for your flat.
If you already purchased a flat and want a floor plan for renovation, you are advised to buy floor plan from HDB for $5 to get the CORRECT floor plan.

Do not make stupid request like “Gimme the 4-room floorplan AMK model”, every town have many different floor plans, and most floor plans are NOT town-specific.
Some people suggested sorting floor plan collection by town / address. This is not possible due of above reason.

Other articles about history of public housing in Singapore

If you are student or love architecture, I invite you to check the apartments designed by myself, some of them being inspired from HDB and improved or alternatives to HDB layouts.

Dec 22

HDB price trends

HDB resale flat prices have been stabilized in 2015, dropping first 3 quarters and rising in the 4th quarter with only 0.2%. Let’s hope that prices won’t rise again too much. I predict 2-4% rise over 2016 year.

However, prices are rising in some towns while dropping in other towns. I compiled this: HDB Median Resale Prices by Town .XLS showing HDB price trends since 2007. Updated 25 Mar 2016 (every 3 months). The gaps in lines in Excel chart are because HDB do not provide median price if less than 20 flats were transacted per quarter.

HDB resale flat prices 1990-2015

As you can see in the chart, Singapore HDB flat prices DOUBLED in 2008-2013 due of insufficient supply of new flats.

Would you like prices dropping next 5 years to the early 2000s value? Think about owners who worked hard to pay current flats which will lose half of value! Would you like prices growing so you and everyone else can make profit selling? Think about your kids, how hard they will need to work to buy their first home!

Demand for apartments in Singapore was high, until 1997 Asian Crisis, which came when 80.000 flats were under construction, resulting in about 40000 unsold completed flats in the year 2000. 2003 SARS outbreak affected economy too, so 5 years were necessary to clear the stock of unsold flats. Queue selling system (Registration for Flat) was suspended in 2002, Build-To-Order was introduced to prevent oversupply, and Walk-In-Selection was used temporarily to clear the stock of unsold flats. Resale prices were constant because new flats were available immediately.

As the stock of unsold flats vanished, Walk-In Selection ended in 2007 and was replaced by Sale of Balance Flats that is only twice per year thus the battle is 6 people per each flat. Residents who cannot wait 3-4 years construction time for BTO and fail at SBF, need to go in resale market. Resale prices started rising.

Economy recovered in late 2000s but HDB failed to anticipate, ramped up the BTO supply too late and too slow, they offered 5500 BTO flats in 2007, 7800 in 2008, 9000 in 2009 (global recession), 12000? 16000 in 2010, 22000 25000 in 2011, 25000 27000 in 2012, plus DBSS flats and Executive Condos. (strikethrough numbers are initial numbers announced at beginning of year).

Rising supply of BTO became visible in 2012, a small reduction in resale prices growing rate.
HDB lowered minimum application rate for BTO to be built from 70% to 50% in 2011, but since mid-2000s to 2013 no BTO had application rate under 100% (except elderly Studio BTO flats).

Analysts predicted that the prices in Singapore will start dropping in 2012 (example), as they predicted in 2011, 2010 too. In my forecast, resale flat prices will NOT fall even in 2012, but will continue to grow for as many years as HDB refuse to build ahead of demand, forcing us to wait 4 years via BTO!

The cooling measures from 2011 such as Minimum Occupation Period lengthen to 5 years for resale flats (does anyone know when 5-year MOP was introduced for new flats?) just made people angry as they can sell their flats only after 9 years since the date they apply for BTO. Stupid MOP cause less flats to enter resale market in the coming years, the number of people not eligible for buying directly from HDB (for example PR and singles) is growing.

Most of BTOs launched in the 3 years 2009, 2010, 2011 will be completed in only 2 years 2013-2014… ~ 30000 flats to be completed in 2014 alone + 5 years MOP = this may lead to a market crash in 2019. I am not saying that prices will not start to fall earlier, but 2009 may have the biggest price fall (if other variables would not exist).

Note: The above text was written by my personal research at end of 2011. Later I found a similar research on Colin Tan: HDB resale flat prices will stay up, dating from Feb 2012, that confirm my hypothesis  They say that prices will drop no sooner than 2017! Oh dear…

Prices dropping since 2013

Multiple cooling measures, such as 3 year waiting period for permanent residents to buy resale flats, created fear that the housing market may crash. I don’t think that PR have big impact on prices… unbelievable, for the first time in 5 years, prices dropped in 3rd quarter 2013. Such minor drop in prices may cause panic, many owners rush to sell their flats before prices fall more, leading to a chain reaction in price drop, OR if the panic may be just temporarily and prices will rise back next year. However, there are no signs to recover. Every quarter of 2014 added 1-2% drop in prices. No significant drop but still enough to make analysts ANGRY that HDB cooling measures were too powerful and requested to be lifted.

Note that HDB can also invent anti-cooling measures in case prices drop with more than 10% in one year, and these anti-cooling measures can fail like how most of the cooling measures failed. HDB wants to stabilize prices, a too sudden drop can be disastrous for entire Singapore economy.

Surprisingly, in the 4th quarter of 2015 resale prices started rising again. How was this possible? Let’s hope that prices won’t rise again too much!

Stupidity: instead of providing an adequate supply of flats, they kept supply low during 2000s despite of population increase, low number of flats entered in resale market while the demand was rising, then during 2010s HDB artificially slowed down demand for resale flats with cooling measures, and when prices started to drop, instead of keeping supply high and lift the cooling measures, they announced to decrease supply of new BTO flats 24300 units in 2014 to 16900 units in 2015. Idiot decision! BTO launches do not affect resale prices directly so we expect to see prices dropping and further decrease of BTO supply in 2016, thus the 2008-2013 price bubble risk to happen again during 2020s!

Personalty I hope that HDB will let the price index to drop slowly to 150 (2009 level), THEN lift the cooling measures, but keep the supply of at least 25000 BTO flats per year.

New BTO flat prices won’t fall according resale price index, they were traditionally priced 20% cheaper than resale flat prices, but since 2011 they were “de-linked” and priced 30% cheaper (even if we exclude grants for first timers) as the HDB anticipated price fall. even if the prices fall 10% for 3 consecutive years, BTO flat owners will still have profit from selling their flats. This does not apply for DBSS flats which were overpriced at their launch in 2011-2012. Raised income ceiling from $10k to $12k in 2015 may allow HDB to push up BTO prices. Prices of BTO flats 2008-2015 are available on


If you could decide HDB flat prices to fall or rise, what you would do?

10-20% price rise per year to ensure that every flat owner can make profit when will sell the flat. Forget our children and other young couples
max 5% price rise per year
Maintain prices as constant is possible
max 5% prices fall per year
10-20% price fall per year to quickly make the flats affordable for our children. Forget the current owners which will lose money, but public housing is not meant for investment and profit
Please Specify:

Poll Maker

Poll started February 2016. See also results of previous poll (379 votes between April 2014 and February 2015).

What you should know

– Upgrading programmes and upcoming MRT lines also drive up the nationwide resale price index.
– The size of today flats may encourage people to go in resale market for flats built before 1998 (NOT SURE if this push up the resale prices, record of psf is now hold by resale flats built in 2000s).
– Prices fall faster in young towns than mature towns, Punggol suffered biggest price fall in late 2013, as results of over-speculation during last years, this after it was the cheapest town in mid-2000s.
– In mature towns prices fall faster in the old 10-storey blocks of Queenstown and Toa Payoh that are getting shadowed by the new 40-storey blocks.

Affordability of HDB flats

Yes they are still affordable!
Proof: every launch, the higher priced BTOs (better locations) gets most applicants.
HDB Website shows application rate. See how 3-room remained unsold and how big is the battle for 5-room despite of higher prices. See the TRUTH about shrinking HDB flat sizes!

Dec 20

HDB floor plans > AutoCAD .DWG

HDB 5-Room flat Fernvale Foliage 3D ModelI offer design service for converting HDB floor plans in AutoCAD DWG files!
And not just that. Contact me for anything that can be drafted in AutoCAD!

I am writing this page after I has been hired by a Malaysian architect to draw 5 HDB whole block floor plan in AutoCAD, for analysis of space efficiency. Later, a Singaporean asked me to draw his own HDB flat and suggest furniture layout. Another one asked if I have certain HDB flat in DWG format, I replied “I can draw it now in AutoCAD” but he said “Thanks anyway” and quit.

Beside this, watching website traffic I see many searches like “hdb 3-room new generation dwg file“, and most people do not click About Me page to see that I am also AutoCAD designer and I could offer DWG files. So I made this page to show…

HDB 3-Room New Generation HDB Point Block 5-Room Improved

You can give me floor plan of your flat, you can choose floor plans from this page with 100 Typical HDB Floor Plans (but beware of possible differences between your flat and the general floor plans posted here), or give me your block number and I may have or not the exact floor plan in my collection of PDF floor plans.

You do not need to provide a floor plan with dimensions. I can use a such floor plan from BTO brochures, put it in AutoCAD and scale it until it reach the floor area indicated by HDB.

Price formula: $10 + $10 for each flat floor plan or + $20 for each block floor plan. This formula is intended to provide discount for people who need more than one floor plan. With other words, $20 for first flat and $10 for additional ones, $30 for first block and $20 for additional ones.

Drawing a HDB flat takes about 1 hour, unless you overlap with my other projects.

You can choose the detail level (to add or not furniture, dimensions, etc) and how to give you (PDF, DWG, etc). 3D model is possible too, in same price.

You can pay directly via Paypal or pay with credit card via Paypal checkout. You can pay all at once after drawing it, before sending the final file DWG or PDF at your choice.

Drawing HDB floor plans in AutoCAD

Dec 14

HDB statistics, facts & figures

HDB built slightly over 1 million units since its founding in 1960 (the 1 millionth flat was completed in December 2010), SIT built about 23,000 units between 1927 and 1960, JTC and HUDC built few thousand units between 1960s and 1980s, making a total of about 1.1 million public housing units built in the history of Singapore, as 2015.

Of these 1.1 million units built, 968,856 units are in use at 31 March 2015, about 130,000 dwelling units being demolished (clearance of rental blocks and SERS), converted (2 units joined into 1 unit), privatized (HUDC), etc.

What other statistical data would you like to see on this page? Leave a comment and tell me!

HDB dwelling units per town and flat type, as 31 March 2015 HDB dwelling units per town, by year
HDB achievements since 1960 HDB dwelling units by flat type, per year
All charts are screenshoted from HDB Statistics .xls, for exact figures see Excel file.

According HDB Annual Report 2015, out of 3.9 million resident population (Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents, as June 2013), 3,217,400 live in HDB apartments, this means 82% (non-residents are not allowed to own HDB apartments but they can live in apartments owned by a resident spouse, also they are allowed to own apartments in private condominiums taller than 6 storeys but not landed houses or apartments in low-rise condominiums). This means average family size of 3.42 residents per apartment and 27.56 sqm per person. For comparison, in 1968 were in average 6.2 people per apartment (average flat size I estimate around 40 sqm).
Many HDB owners are renting rooms or entire flat to foreigners, some HDB owners are citizens married with foreigners, HDB never provide official statistics about how many non-residents live in HDB apartments.

According Yearbook of Statistics 2010, Singapore population including non-residents is 5076700 living in 1180500 dwelling units (HDBs, condos, private flats, landed houses, others), of which 76.3% are HDBs, this means a nationwide average of 4.30 people per dwelling unit, if the average would be same for HDB, it would mean 22 sqm per person (no newer statistics available for non-residents).

Home ownership of HDB flats reached the peak of 94% in 2002, then slowly felt down to 90% in 2011.

HDB dwelling units under management, as 31 March 2015

Biggest HDB town: Bedok during 1990s, Tampines in 1996-1999 and Jurong West since 2000. Either Sengkang or Tampines will take the lead around 2020.

Town 1-Room 2-Room 3-Room 4-Room 5-Room E / MG SA Total
Ang Mo Kio 1318 3493 24239 13682 5654 489 294 49169
Bedok 2250 1923 22515 20065 10390 2713 259 60115
Bishan 396 0 2357 9359 5716 1660 176 19664
Bukit Batok 305 95 10280 13851 4832 2732 180 32275
Bukit Merah 4731 5756 15973 15412 9479 44 490 51885
Bukit Panjang 223 509 3532 16307 10101 3381 410 34463
Bukit Timah 0 0 441 920 682 380 0 2423
Central Area 2075 1316 4739 3529 903 9 0 12571
Choa Chu Kang 355 751 1849 20412 13720 4762 544 42393
Clementi 474 932 11947 8593 2915 619 0 25480
Geylang 1044 3150 11354 9181 3590 830 107 29256
Hougang 532 892 10182 24932 10606 4310 192 51646
Jurong East 352 412 6821 7855 5925 1871 143 23379
Jurong West 540 1630 12468 28348 21553 6507 709 71755
Kallang / Whampoa 4401 2469 13151 9849 5366 504 0 35740
Marine Parade 0 1350 3037 1798 1677 0 0 7862
Pasir Ris 176 322 388 11404 9272 7460 185 29207
Punggol 701 990 2707 16613 13060 1126 318 35515
Queenstown 575 3228 14054 8112 3852 354 371 30546
Sembawang 321 768 349 8447 7556 2870 464 20775
Sengkang 685 1356 2800 27560 22170 4462 0 59033
Serangoon 182 219 4543 10231 3753 2365 0 21293
Tampines 775 702 13082 28361 17147 5845 687 66599
Toa Payoh 1169 3613 15020 9610 6017 854 156 36439
Woodlands 1492 1126 6312 27499 19405 6191 650 62675
Yishun 726 898 14506 28023 9061 2741 743 56698
Total 25798 37900 228646 379953 224402 65079 7078 968856
Average flat size 31 45.26 68.03 96.31 118.47 144.71 ~40 155.61
Final results Average flat size – 93.87 sqm

Total population (Jun 2014) – 5469700 people
Resident population – 3900000 people
HDB resident population – 3213000 people (82%)
Average resident household size – 3.42 people
(27.56 sqm per capita)

Despite of shrinking flat sizes in late 1990s, average flat size has increased until 2005, reaching about 95 sqm, thanks to demolition of small 1/2/3-room flats built in 1960-1970s and building 90-140 sqm flats, also due of the Main Upgrdadin Programme that add 5 sqm utility rooms. After 2005 average flat size is slowly falling down because HDB stoped supply of Executive, reduced supply of 5-room, and reintroduced 1-room, 2-room and 3-room flats.

BTO flats launched since 2011 and completed from 2015 onward are about 80 sqm in average, for comparison the flats build in mid-1990s were about 120 sqm in average, a world record for public housing.

– SingStat for the population
– HDB Annual Reports for the number of flats (units)
– HDB Resale Flat Prices database for 2008-2013 (149930 records) for estimating average flat sizes

The average flat size is a bit innacurate because the database include only sold flats, there is no info about the size of rental 1/2-room flats, and does not include flats built last 5 years which are under minimum occupation period, including them For 2005 average flat size by type I used resale transactions with lease year pre-2005.

SingStat also show population living in condos and landed houses, in case you are interested, but unfortunately there are NO detailed statistics for about number of private housing breakdown by type.

Excel files with additional statistics

HDB Annual Reports.xls – 1990-2000 + 1962 annual reports digitalized into Excel by me:

Source of data: HDB Annual Reports 1994-1996 (available on and 2000-present (available on HDB InfoWEB even if they are no longer in Annual Reports page, but doing a Google search you could still find the direct link to files still hosted on HDB server, they were deleted at October 2015 website redesign). I was not able to get 1997-1999 because since 1997 HDB provided in PDF format instead of HTML page, and did not cached PDF files.
I added 1990-1999 thanks to KZ, a friend who during school vacation of June and December 2015 went in National Library and photoed the annual reports for me for digitalization. He photoed 1960s to 1980s annual reports too and I may digitalize them too when I have free time. These pre-1990 annual reports have a list of about 100 HDB Estates. The current HDB towns appeared in AR 1990 (20 towns plus 11 other estates) and was revised in AR 1999 to 23 towns and 4 estates then 23 towns and 3 estates by abandoning Lim Chu Kang.

HDB Statistics.xls – Excel file compiled by me, containing:
– Annual Reports 2000-2015
– Number of dwelling units by town and flat type, table and chart
– Number of dwelling units by town and year, table and chart
– Number of dwelling units by flat type and year, table and chart
– Statistics for calculation of the average flat size along history
– HDB achievements since 1960
– Resale market statistics
Please leave your comments about my work!

HDB flat size statistics based on resale transactions

I copied the listings from HDB Resale Flat Prices e-service (April 2008 – December 2013) in Microsoft Excel for purpose of making statistics. Results:

– As country level: the average flats size is 97.41 sqm (average of ~149930 transacted units).
– As town level: Central Area (most built in 1970s) have the smallest flats, 72.24 sqm (average of 998 units) while Pasir Ris New Town (built between 1988 and 1996) have the biggest flats, 123.38 sqm (average of 5184 units).
– As neighborhood level: Pasir Ris 2XX neighborhood have the biggest flats, 132.36 sqm (average of 694 units), Pasir Ris 5XX have 129.25 sqm (average of 875 units), Pasir Ris 6XX have 127.17 sqm (average of 521 units), Choa Chu Kang 5XX have 126.39 sqm (average of 607 units), Tampines 3XX have 121.79 sqm (average of 1129 units).
– As five-year period: 1991-1995 have the biggest flats, 124.48 sqm (average of 11398 transacted units).

Note that the average size of resold flats is slightly bigger than the real average flat size, because the big and <10 year old flats tends to change their owners more frequently than the small old flats owned mainly by elderly, also some of the small flats are rented from HDB rather than owned, so they never appear in resale transactions.

The full Excel database of resale transactions can be purchased from my Store.

HDB flats breakdown by floor area HDB flats size over years


I noticed many visitors coming here by searching things like “total number of HDB blocks in Singapore“. HDB provide official numbers of units but not of blocks. Blocks can be ONLY counted manually.
Do we should also count the 2-storey shophouse that contains no residential units, only commercial units (flats accessible from shop entrance)? Do we should also count under-construction blocks and blocks awaiting demolition? Do we should count multi-storey carparks and precint pavilions too?

According Database of HDB blocks, there are about 9800 residential HDB buildings in Singapore (not including carparks, pavilions, but including shophouses).
Note that the database is, in the current version, NOT ACCURATE… being made for personal curiosity without being paid for, with limited time available for voluntary jobs. Some under construction blocks are counted, others not. Some demolished blocks are counted too.

I will provide detailed statistics with higher accuracy if someone will pay my time required to make them.

First payment came in May 2015, reason for which I improved database accuracy significantly.
According the July 2015 edition of database, there are 9503 blocks with known number of units, total 980108 units, giving an average of 103 units per block.

Dec 12

List of BTO projects

Punggol Naulitius BTOBTO & DBSS List in Excel, to sort and filter by each column.
BTO Prices List with 2010-2015 BTOs. Does anyone want to expand table to 2001-2009 BTOs? If you have any suggestion how to make table easier to compare BTO prices, tell me!
PDF brochures with floor plans of all BTOs launched since December 2009. Looking for future BTO launches?

Advice: if you applied for a BTO and a good queue number, don’t apply via SBF hoping to get a better flat in better location and available sooner, the battle for each flat in SBF in mature towns is huge and you risk to remain homeless! Well, you can apply via SBF in Sembawang where application rate hardly reach 1:1.


Town name BTO name Launch
date (note)
Number of flats
Studio 2-rm 3-rm 4-rm 5-rm 3gen Total
2001-2005 22 BTO projects – 12483 flats
Average flat size: 91.67 sqm
Sembawang Flowing Greenery Apr-2001 Cancelled 210 200 410
Sembawang River Edge Apr-2001 Apr-2005 222 225 447
Sengkang Arcadia Apr-2001 Apr-2005 640 321 961
Sengkang Rivervale Green Apr-2001 Apr-2005 576 200 776
Punggol Edgedale Green Dec-2002 Dec-2006 582 582
Punggol Periwinkle Dec-2002 Dec-2006 450 450
Sengkang Coris 1 Dec-2002 Dec-2006 434 434
Punggol Sundial Sep-2003 Sep-2007 425 425
Punggol Sundial
(half relaunched as Nautilus)
Sep-2003 Cancelled 478 478
Sembawang Spring Lodge
(relaunched as River Lodge)
Sep-2003 Cancelled 432 432
Sengkang Coris 2 Sep-2003 Sep-2007 448 448
Sengkang Aspella 1 Dec-2003 Dec-2007 429 429
Sengkang Aspella 2 Dec-2003 Dec-2007 433 433
Sengkang Atrina 1 Mar-2004 Mar-2008 424 424
Sengkang Atrina 2 Mar-2004 Mar-2008 366 366
Central Pinnacle@Duxton May-2004 May-2010 1232 616 1848
Sengkang Fernvale Grove Aug-2004 Aug-2008 156 352 508
Punggol Anthias
(relaunched as Damai Grove)
Dec-2004 Cancelled 134 600 734
Sengkang Coral Green
(relaunched as Coral Spring)
Dec-2004 Cancelled 655 655
Sengkang Tivela Mar-2005 Mar-2009 374 374
Punggol Coralinus 1 Jun-2005 Jun-2009 369 369
Sengkang Fernvale Court Sep-2005 Sep-2009 128 372 500
2006 6 BTO projects – 2357 flats
Average flat size: 82.66 sqm
Punggol Coralinus 2 Feb-2006 Feb-2010 365 365
Sengkang Fernvale Vista 1 Jul-2006 Jul-2010 86 92 330 508
Bishan Golden Jasmine Sep-2006 Sep-2010 176 176
Sembawang Sembawang Green Sep-2006 Sep-2010 471 471
Geylang Sri Geylang Serai Oct-2006 Oct-2010 447 447
Sengkang Compassvale View Nov-2006 Nov-2010 105 285 390
2007 10 BTO projects – 5488 flats
Average flat size: 83.23 sqm
Punggol Treelodge May-2007 May-2011 98 600 14 712
Sengkang Fernvale Vista 2 May-2007 May-2011 164 174 340 678
Punggol Punggol Vista Aug-2007 Aug-2011 45 65 90 200
Sengkang Coral Spring Sep-2007 Sep-2011 698 698
Bukit Merah Telok Blangah Towers Oct-2007 Oct-2010 90 100 210 400
Punggol Punggol Lodge Oct-2007 Oct-2011 52 464 516
Bukit Panjang Segar Meadows Nov-2007 Nov-2011 90 322 412
Sengkang Compassvale Beacon Nov-2007 Nov-2011 60 150 540 750
Punggol Damai Grove Dec-2007 Dec-2011 62 676 738
Yishun Jade Spring 1 Dec-2007 Dec-2011 48 336 384
2008 12 BTO projects – 7789 flats
Average flat size: 87.75 sqm
Punggol Punggol Spring Feb-2008 Feb-2012 494 494
Yishun Jade Spring 2 Mar-2008 Mar-2012 36 72 464 572
Punggol Punggol Sapphire May-2008 May-2012 760 305 1065
Sengkang Compassvale Pearl May-2008 May-2010 336 84 420
Punggol Punggol Breeze Jun-2008 Jun-2012 778 186 964
Sengkang Fernvale Residence Jun-2008 Jun-2011 55 444 124 623
Woodlands Straits Vista Jun-2008 Jun-2012 50 332 382
Bukit Panjang Senja Green 26-Aug-2008 Aug-2012 96 94 284 474
Punggol Punggol Arcadia 13-Nov-2008 Nov-2011 120 465 165 750
Choa Chu Kang Sunshine Court Dec-2008 Dec-2012 164 117 171 452
Punggol Punggol Regalia Dec-2008 Dec-2011 546 183 729
Yishun Dew Spring 18-Dec-2008 Dec-2012 144 216 504 864
2009 13 BTO projects – 9111 flats
Average flat size: 80.27 sqm
Woodlands Champions Court 25-Feb-2009 Feb-2013 224 182 224 185 815
Punggol The Nautilus @ Punggol 26-Mar-2009 Mar-2013 413 106 519
Sengkang Fernvale Crest 02-Jun-2009 Jun-2013 142 372 188 702
Punggol Punggol Residences 30-Jul-2009 Jul-2013 615 154 769
Punggol Punggol Spectra 31-Aug-2009 Aug-2013 301 285 556 1142
Jurong West Boon Lay Meadow 16-Oct-2009 Oct-2013 240 300 165 705
Sengkang Fernvale Palms 16-Oct-2009 Oct-2013 96 347 52 495
Punggol Punggol Ripples 16-Nov-2009 Nov-2013 130 157 403 690
Punggol Punggol Sails 16-Nov-2009 Nov-2013 278 218 109 605
Bukit Panjang Segar Grove 15-Dec-2009 Dec-2013 115 217 196 528
Queenstown Skyterrace@Dawson 15-Dec-2009 Dec-2014 105 110 459 84 758
Queenstown Skyville@Dawson 15-Dec-2009 Dec-2014 160 682 118 960
Sembawang Montreal Dale 15-Dec-2009 Dec-2013 115 156 152 423
2010 22 BTO projects – 16023 flats
Average flat size: 81.14 sqm
Hougang Buangkok Vale 05-Jan-2010 1Q 2014 128 118 453 699
Choa Chu Kang Limbang Green 05-Jan-2010 3Q 2013 276 128 188 592
Punggol Punggol Crest 11-Feb-2010 4Q 2013 240 240 270 750
Woodlands Treegrove 11-Feb-2010 4Q 2014 192 182 372 746
Sengkang Fernvale Ridge 16-Mar-2010 2Q 2014 180 216 102 498
Sembawang River Lodge 16-Mar-2010 2Q 2014 126 86 220 432
Punggol Punggol Emerald 20-Apr-2010 2Q 2014 188 96 350 222 856
Punggol Punggol Waves 20-Apr-2010 1Q 2014 105 259 209 573
Jurong West Boon Lay Grove 06-May-2010 4Q 2013 300 150 450
Yishun Floral Spring 06-May-2010 1Q 2014 96 264 110 470
Punggol Waterway Terraces 30-Jun-2010 1Q 2015 178 588 306 1072
Sengkang Fernvale Foliage 30-Jun-2010 2Q 2014 336 168 504
Sengkang Rivervale Arc 30-Jun-2010 1Q 2014 238 221 661 1120
Jurong West Corporation Tiara 29-Jul-2010 2Q 2014 171 104 275
Bukit Panjang Senja Gateway 29-Jul-2010 3Q 2014 254 313 174 741
Yishun Yishun Rivervalk 31-Aug-2010 4Q 2014 254 250 652 252 1408
Woodlands Woodlands Dew 21-Sep-2010 2Q 2014 330 145 314 789
Woodlands Woodlands Meadow 21-Sep-2010 2Q 2014 75 255 210 540
Sengkang Anchorvale Horizon 26-Oct-2010 1Q 2014 240 357 148 745
Bukit Panjang Senja Park View 26-Oct-2010 4Q 2014 112 112 353 577
Yishun Yishun Greenwalk 18-Nov-2010 3Q 2014 112 602 462 1176
Punggol Punggol Topaz 22-Dec-2010 2Q 2015 184 542 284 1010
2011 39 BTO projects – 25294 flats
Average flat size: 83.4 sqm
Bukit Batok Golden Daisy 25-Jan-2011 1Q 2014 180 180
Yishun Orchid Spring @ Yishun 25-Jan-2011 4Q 2014 192 252 504 948
Yishun Vista Spring @ Yishun 25-Jan-2011 3Q 2014 96 324 276 696
Sengkang Fernvale Flora 28-Feb-2011 2Q 2014 93 107 321 521
Sengkang Fernvale Gardens 28-Feb-2011 2Q 2014 210 172 382
Bukit Panjang Segar Vale 28-Feb-2011 2Q 2014 112 112 269 197 690
Jurong West Boon Lay Fields 24-Mar-2011 1Q 2014 93 246 152 491
Sengkang Compassvale Ancilla 24-Mar-2011 3Q 2014 224 142 420 252 1038
Punggol Waterway Terraces II 25-Apr-2011 2Q 2015 118 440 246 804
Sengkang Anchorvale Cove 25-Apr-2011 4Q 2014 218 463 330 1011
Hougang Hougang Parkview 25-Apr-2011 2Q 2014 98 528 166 792
Sembawang Montreal Ville 25-Apr-2011 1Q 2014 105 107 366 578
Pasir Ris Costa Ris 27-May-2011 3Q 2014 257 224 688 217 1386
Pasir Ris Golden Lily 27-May-2011 4Q 2013 185 185
Punggol Punggol Parcvista 27-May-2011 2Q 2014 172 338 172 682
Tampines Tampines GreenLeaf 27-May-2011 3Q 2014 96 318 604 320 1338
Tampines Tampines GreenWood 27-May-2011 2Q 2014 144 144
Woodlands Woodlands Peak 27-May-2011 3Q 2015 127 95 222
Yishun Yishun Natura 14-Jul-2011 4Q 2014 112 140 112 364
Bukit Panjang Segar Meadows 14-Jul-2011 3Q 2014 60 240 300
Bukit Panjang Segar Palmview 14-Jul-2011 4Q 2014 119 350 213 682
Sengkang Anchorvale Isles 14-Jul-2011 2Q 2014 405 270 675
Sengkang Fernvale Riverbow 14-Jul-2011 4Q 2014 168 539 447 1154
Tampines Golden Carnation 14-Jul-2011 1Q 2014 149 149
Jurong West Golden Orchid 14-Jul-2011 2Q 2014 232 232
Punggol Waterway Woodcress 22-Sep-2011 1Q 2015 100 350 244 694
Punggol Waterway Brooks 22-Sep-2011 3Q 2015 156 691 465 1312
Sengkang Anchorvale Harvest 22-Sep-2011 3Q 2014 88 404 225 717
Sengkang Fernvale Rivergrove 22-Sep-2011 3Q 2015 100 484 892 252 1728
Ang Mo Kio Yio Chu Kang Vista 22-Sep-2011 4Q 2014 158 98 256
Jurong East Teban View 22-Sep-2011 4Q 2015 185 333 518
Jurong West Golden Peony 22-Sep-2011 3Q 2014 190 190
Punggol Waterway Ridges 24-Nov-2011 2Q 2015 224 362 246 832
Punggol Waterway Banks 24-Nov-2011 2Q 2014 410 606 1016
Hougang Capeview 24-Nov-2011 1Q 2015 108 429 244 781
Hougang Dew Court 24-Nov-2011 1Q 2015 198 181 379
Yishun Acacia Breeze 24-Nov-2011 1Q 2015 108 418 308 834
Bukit Panjang Fajar Spring 24-Nov-2011 4Q 2014 156 108 264
Bedok Golden Cassia 24-Nov-2011 4Q 2014 129 129
2012 40 BTO projects – 27084 flats
Average flat size: 85.12 sqm
Choa Chu Kang Sunshine Gardens 12-Jan-2012 2Q 2015 104 118 788 518 1528
Sengkang Fernvale Lea 12-Jan-2012 3Q 2015 100 100 600 350 1150
Punggol Waterway Sunbeam 12-Jan-2012 2Q 2015 185 260 216 661
Tampines Tampines GreenTerrace 12-Jan-2012 3Q 2014 99 196 295
Tampines Tampines Alcoves 12-Jan-2012 3Q 2014 186 103 289
Bukit Batok Skyline I @ Bukit Batok 28-Mar-2012 2Q 2016 78 216 194 488
Bukit Batok Skyline II @ Bukit Batok 28-Mar-2012 1Q 2017 136 301 307 744
Bukit Panjang Fajar Hills 28-Mar-2012 4Q 2015 146 392 324 862
Clementi Clementi Ridges 28-Mar-2012 3Q 2016 156 312 216 684
Geylang MacPherson Residency 28-Mar-2012 4Q 2015 211 426 637
Bedok Ping Yi Greens 28-Mar-2012 4Q 2015 98 84 236 418
Bukit Timah Golden Kismis 28-Mar-2012 3Q 2015 132 132
Toa Payoh Golden Clover 28-Mar-2012 3Q 2015 188 188
Sengkang Compassvale Boardwalk 30-May-2012 4Q 2015 252 222 474
Choa Chu Kang Keat Hong Pride 30-May-2012 2Q 2016 80 656 407 1143
Punggol Punggol Edge 30-May-2012 2Q 2016 128 400 160 688
Punggol Waterway SunDew 30-May-2012 2Q 2016 152 423 262 837
Kallang/Whampoa Bendemeer Light 30-May-2012 4Q 2016 212 412 624
Kallang/Whampoa McNair Towers 30-May-2012 4Q 2016 270 115 476 861
Choa Chu Kang Keat Hong Axis 31-Jul-2012 1Q 2016 98 140 520 372 1130
Punggol Punggol Opal 31-Jul-2012 4Q 2015 128 144 254 526
Punggol Waterway Cascadia 31-Jul-2012 3Q 2016 242 500 267 1009
Clementi Clementi Gateway 31-Jul-2012 3Q 2016 134 144 278
Bukit Merah Depot Heights 31-Jul-2012 3Q 2016 114 128 176 418
Bukit Merah Telok Blangah Ridgeview 31-Jul-2012 1Q 2016 96 396 492
Geylang Greentops @ Sims Place 31-Jul-2012 4Q 2015 196 142 338
Choa Chu Kang Keat Hong Quad 27-Sep-2012 1Q 2016 334 190 524
Woodlands TreeTrail @ Woodlands 27-Sep-2012 2Q 2016 418 234 652
Woodlands Golden Saffron 27-Sep-2012 2Q 2015 128 128
Ang Mo Kio Cheng San Court 27-Sep-2012 1Q 2018 171 178 363 712
Ang Mo Kio Teck Ghee Parkview 27-Sep-2012 1Q 2017 130 256 190 576
Tampines Tampines Greenlace 27-Sep-2012 1Q 2016 215 165 380
Kallang/Whampoa Tenteram Peak 27-Sep-2012 4Q 2016 319 436 755
Choa Chu Kang Keat Kong Mirage 21-Nov-2012 3Q 2016 114 559 486 1159
Sengkang Compassvale Mast 21-Nov-2012 2Q 2016 104 465 359 928
Sengkang Rivervale Delta 21-Nov-2012 2Q 2016 102 425 357 884
Bedok Fengshan GreenVille 21-Nov-2012 4Q 2017 /
4Q 2018
198 182 570 108 1058
Queenstown Ghim Moh Edge 21-Nov-2012 2Q 2017 222 296 661 1179
Toa Payoh Joo Seng Green 21-Nov-2012 1Q 2016 102 146 248
Toa Payoh Toa Payoh Crest 21-Nov-2012 3Q 2017 232 311 464 1007
2013 34 BTO projects – 25215 flats
Average flat size: 84.95 sqm
Hougang Hougang ParkEdge 29-Jan-2013 2Q 2016 136 204 238 578
Choa Chu Kang Keat Hong Colours 29-Jan-2013 4Q 2016 136 484 348 968
Yishun Oleander Breeze @ Yishun 29-Jan-2013 3Q 2016 180 103 283
Ang Mo Kio Kebun Baru Court 29-Jan-2013 2Q 2017 160 348 180 688
Tampines Tampines GreenForest 29-Jan-2013 2Q 2016 160 264 424
Kallang/Whampoa Whampoa Dew 29-Jan-2013 2Q 2017 156 249 405
Sengkang Compassvale Cape 21-Mar-2013 4Q 2016 168 196 588 440 1392
Sengkang Compassvale Helm 21-Mar-2013 4Q 2016 138 253 207 598
Punggol Matilda Portico 21-Mar-2013 2Q 2016 251 219 470
Bukit Batok SkyPeak @ Bukit Batok 21-Mar-2013 4Q 2017 100 110 790 430 1430
Sembawang EastBank @ Canberra 30-May-2013 4Q 2016 193 179 372
Sembawang EastBrook @ Canberra 30-May-2013 2Q 2017 140 263 627 1030
Sembawang EastWave @ Canberra 30-May-2013 2Q 2017 379 335 714
Hougang Golden Mint 30-May-2013 4Q 2016 292 292
Hougang Hougang Crimson 30-May-2013 4Q 2016 104 210 314
Choa Chu Kang Keat Hong Crest 30-May-2013 1Q 2017 146 328 208 682
Jurong West Spring Haven @ Jurong 30-May-2013 1Q 2017 90 150 238 478
Woodlands Woodlands Pasture I & II 30-May-2013 2Q 2017 156 509 353 1018
Yishun Angsana Breeze @ Yishun 30-Jul-2013 1Q 2017 186 520 252 958
Yishun Vine Grove @ Yishun 30-Jul-2013 4Q 2016 180 192 324 696
Sengkang Fernvale Riverwalk 30-Jul-2013 2Q 2017 121 205 401 727
Bukit Merah Telok Blangah ParcView 30-Jul-2013 4Q 2017 172 386 922 1480
Punggol Matilda Edge 26-Sep-2013 4Q 2017 192 538 600 1330
Punggol The Verandah @ Matilda 26-Sep-2013 1Q 2017 258 223 481
Punggol Waterway View 26-Sep-2013 3Q 2017 190 526 341 1057
Yishun Khatib Court 26-Sep-2013 2Q 2017 143 167 310
Yishun Palm Breeze @ Yishun 26-Sep-2013 4Q 2016 96 274 176 546
Yishun Sacara Breeze @ Yishun 26-Sep-2013 1Q 2017 84 96 168 84 84 516
Woodlands Admiralty Grove 26-Nov-2013 3Q 2017 252 240 333 168 993
Jurong West Boon Lay View 26-Nov-2013 2Q 2017 140 306 252 112 810
Jurong West Yung Kuang Court 26-Nov-2013 3Q 2017 302 226 528
Sembawang EastLawn @ Canberra 26-Nov-2013 2Q 2017 163 174 337
Hougang Hougang Meadow 26-Nov-2013 1Q 2017 150 188 394 732
Bukit Batok West Ridges @ Bukit Batok 26-Nov-2013 1Q 2018 202 235 591 550 1578
2014 32 BTO projects – 22581 flats
Average flat size: 76.56 sqm
Bukit Batok Bukit Gombak Vista 22-Jan-2014 4Q 2017 156 130 286
Jurong West Golden Lavender 22-Jan-2014 3Q 2017 149 149
Punggol Punggol Bayview 22-Jan-2014 1Q 2018 /
4Q 2018
202 462 380 52 1096
Punggol Punggol Vue
(+ 215 1-rm, 215 2-rm rental)
22-Jan-2014 4Q 2017 304 266 570
Woodlands Woodlands Glen 22-Jan-2014 2Q 2017 300 180 408 888
Serangoon Golden Ginger 22-Jan-2014 3Q 2017 150 150
Sembawang EastCrown @ Canberra 26-Mar-2014 3Q 2017 312 264 370 274 1220
Sembawang EastLace @ Canberra 26-Mar-2014 2Q 2017 140 140 200 480
Sengkang Anchorvale Parkview 26-Mar-2014 1Q 2017 268 165 70 503
Yishun Fern Grove @ Yishun 26-Mar-2014 4Q 2017 288 251 443 312 1294
Bukit Batok West Crest @ Bukit Batok 22-May-2014 4Q 2017 100 206 189 495
Bukit Batok West Valley @ Bukit Batok 22-May-2014 1Q 2018 290 216 418 924
Woodlands Admiralty Flora 22-May-2014 2Q 2017 221 181 402
Woodlands Marsiling Greenview
(+ 174 1-rm, 268 2-rm rental)
22-May-2014 3Q 2018 289 194 389 382 50 1304
Punggol Matilda Court 19-Jun-2014 4Q 2017 320 112 380 350 1162
Punggol Waterway Sunray 19-Jun-2014 4Q 2017 104 96 194 188 582
Sembawang Sun Natura 19-Jun-2014 2Q 2018 330 121 397 848
Toa Payoh Toa Payoh Apex 19-Jun-2014 4Q 2018 138 419 557
Woodlands Kampung Admiralty 19-Jun-2014 3Q 2017 104 104
Yishun Park Grove @ Yishun 19-Jun-2014 3Q 2017 120 204 216 48 588
Bukit Batok West Terra & Bukit Batok 24-Sep-2014 1Q 2018 462 261 616 454 1793
Hougang Buangkok Edgeview 24-Sep-2014 4Q 2017 232 179 56 467
Hougang Buangkok Square 24-Sep-2014 2Q 2018 317 116 292 725
Jurong West Yung Ho Spring I 24-Sep-2014 2Q 2018 240 135 266 641
Jurong West Yung Ho Spring II 24-Sep-2014 2Q 2018 171 95 266
Kallang/Whampoa St. George’s Towers 24-Sep-2014 1Q 2019 151 124 463 738
Sembawang Sun Breeze
( +174 1-rm, 138 2-rm rental)
25-Nov-2014 1Q 2018 278 116 306 700
Sengkang Anchorvale Fields 25-Nov-2014 2Q 2018 224 63 224 511
Yishun Blossom Spring @ Yishun
( +221 1-rm, 208 2-rm rental)
25-Nov-2014 3Q 2018 260 130 260 650
Yishun Meadow Spring @ Yishun 25-Nov-2014 4Q 2018 182 77 210 469
Tampines Tampines GreenEdge 25-Nov-2014 4Q 2017 154 198 99 451
Tampines Tampines GreenRidges
(+ 254 1-rm, 193 2-rm rental)
25-Nov-2014 1Q 2019 454 740 246 56 1496
2015 16900 flats planned
Bukit Batok West Edge @ Bukit Batok
(+ 168 1-rm, 168 2-rm rental)
11-Feb-2015 1Q 2019 628 108 646 212 1594
Bukit Batok West Rock @ Bukit Batok 11-Feb-2015 3Q 2018 218 172 58 448
Hougang Buangkok Parkvista 11-Feb-2015 4Q 2018 198 95 192 485
Hougang Buangkok Tropica 11-Feb-2015 3Q 2018 285 90 343 718
Geylang MacPherson Spring 11-Feb-2015 2Q 2019 168 204  378 750
Clementi Clementi Crest 27-May-2015 2Q 2020 229 156 385
Punggol Northshore Residences I 27-May-2015 2Q 2020 208 64 227 89 588
Punggol Northshore Residences II 27-May-2015 2Q 2020 338 48 292 136 814
Sembawang EastLink I @ Canberra 27-May-2015 3Q 2019 229 139 232 600
Sembawang EastLink II @ Canberra 27-May-2015 2Q 2019 174 116 151 441
Tampines Tampines GreenWeave 27-May-2015 3Q 2019 224 80 465 391 56 1216
Bidadari Alkaff CourtView 17-Nov-2015 2Q 2020 192 369 697 1258
Bidadari Alkaff LakeView 17-Nov-2015 4Q 2019 198 333 531
Bidadari Alkaff Vista 17-Nov-2015 3Q 2019 199 151 350
Bukit Batok West Quarry @ Bukit Batok 17-Nov-2015 2Q 2019 337 79 220 636
Choa Chu Kang Teck Whye Vista 17-Nov-2015 2Q 2020 126 126
Hougang Hougang RiverCourt 17-Nov-2015 3Q 2020 155 83 47 285
Punggol Waterfront I @ Northshore 17-Nov-2015 4Q 2020 150 116 370 106 49 791
Punggol Waterfront II @ Northshore 17-Nov-2015 4Q 2020 212 115 387 141 48 903
Punggol Northshore StraitsView 17-Nov-2015 3Q 2020 469 98 264 190 1021
Sengkang Fernvale Woods 17-Nov-2015 3Q 2019 607 135 226 192 1160
Bidadari Alkaff Oasis 24-Feb-2016 4Q 2020 218 340 800 165 71 1594
Bukit Batok West Plains @ Bukit Batok 24-Feb-2016 2Q 2020 674 187 410 384 1655
Sengkang Anchorvale Plains 24-Feb-2016 1Q 2020 448 96 260 117 921
Bukit Panjang Senja Heights 24-May-2016 3Q 2021 253 85 214 552
Bukit Panjang Senja Ridges 24-May-2016 2Q 2021 106 62 62 230
Bukit Panjang Senja Valley 24-May-2016 4Q 2021 400 105 205 79 789
Sembawang EastCreek @ Canberra 24-May-2016 4Q 2019 610 116 350 176 1252
Ang Mo Kio Ang Mo Kio Court 24-May-2016 3Q 2020 156 234 148 52 590
Bedok Bedok North Woods 24-May-2016 2Q 2020 110 247 357


Future BTO launches

Many people come there from google searches like “2016 BTO list” or “BTO launch location 2016“, as well as asking me such things over chat.

There is NOT possible to predict future accurately, except what we see in HDB Upcoming Sales Launches, the location of BTO in next launch.
For people who report me “next month will be BTO launch in towns X and Y” – “Yes I know” – “So why your site do not show that?“, I cannot know in advance the project name, completion date and number of units, so… I add new BTO projects in the above table in the day of launch, not in advance.

The launch date cannot be predicted, but as you can see from past launches it is usually in second day of month.

I was surprised to see since 2012 more and more BTO in mature towns.
Now we can expect new BTO launches in EVERY town with land available, you can use Google Maps / Earth (satellite photos) to see the available land (Marine Parade is the only town with no BTO guaranteed). But nobody knows how sooner a land parcel will be developed as BTO, some parcels can be sold to private developers instead.

Large amount of BTO flats are expected in Bukit Batok West (around Millennia Institute – confirmed by maps of May 2013 SOBF), Choa Chu Kang South, Jurong West Street 22-25, Yishun South-East (note: my personal predictions, based by past launches and maps).

Mature towns can get BTO flats too, on the land cleared via SERS. Example: Ang Mo Kio blk 247-252, Clementi blk 401-409, Sims Lane blk 54-60, also Jalan Tenteram.

The only official info from HDB was on 29 August 2013, the Public Exhibition on New Housing Areas: Bidadari (estate within Toa Payoh town, first BTO early 2015), Tampines North (first BTO late 2014), Punggol Matilda (first BTO Sep 2013).

The next New Towns, Tengah and Seletar, may be started in few years depending by demand.

Tiling Services advertise here

Application ratio

An application ratio 3.00:1 means that theoretically 1 of 3 people will be invited to select a flat. An application ratio 1.00:1 does not always mean that everyone got a flat, because some flat types gets oversubscribed while others undersubscribed. Please see on HDB InfoWeb the application rate for each BTO project and flat type (note: until October 2015 HDB site redesign, the application ratio for past BTO far back as Aug 2010, was still accessible via direct links although no longer visible in the Application Status page). I saved them and you can download from me.

For example, the May 2013 BTO set a new record of low applicant ratio: 1.07:1 overall, this does not mean that everyone got a home. The 4-room units got 4:3:1 in Hougang BTO while in Sembawang BTO the ratio was 0.4:1 (60% flats remained unsold). Stupid idea to launch BTO in such bad location in the same time with SBF, obviously people go for better flats in SBF.

In May 2015 for the first time HDB announced the launch date 1 week before the actual launch, the application ratio being unusual high even after one day of sales, proving that HDB is still undersupply. Surprisingly, first time SBF exceed BTO application ratio.


Launch BTO SBF
No of Units Number of
Ratio No of Units Number of
August 2010 1408 3338 2.37 1624 11503 7.08
September 2010 1329 2942 2.21
October 2010 1322 7994 6.05
November 2010 1176 3954 3.36
December 2010 1010 7109 7.04
January 2011 1728 3639 2.11
February 2011 1593 8468 5.32
March 2011 1527 11082 7.26
April 2011 3185 10240 3.22
May 2011 3957 13988 3.54
July 2011 3556 12116 3.41
September 2011 5415 9476 1.75 2847 18428 6.47
November 2011 4235 11092 2.62
January 2012 3923 10620 2.71
March 2012 4153 12540 3.02 3825 15702 4.11
May 2012 4627 12254 2.65
July 2012 4191 12633 3.01
September 2012 3727 9664 2.59 3328 16005 4.81
November 2012 6463 18610 2.88
January 2013 3346 12619 3.77
March 2013 3898 12090 3.10
May 2013 4900 5244 1.07 3100 21664 6.99
July 2013 4079 19879 4.87
September 2013 4156 10781 2.59
November 2013 4978 11210 2.25 3974 16401 4.13
January 2014 3139 11543 3.68
March 2014 3497 10171 2.91
May 2014 3071 6540 2.13 3383 15483 4.58
July 2014 3841 14093 3.67
September 2014 4630 14452 3.12
November 2014 4277 10501 2.46 3291 14391 4.37
February 2015 3995 9573 2.44
May 2015 4044 15768 3.9 5387 18796 3.49
November 2015 4968 17278 3.48 4132 15351 3.72



As end of 2015, 168453 flats were launched in 251 BTO projects (of which 2709 flats were cancelled in 5 BTO projects). The estimated average BTO flat size is 82.68 sqm and is dropping due of raising supply of 2-room flats since 2013 (for comparison: 1990s HDB flats were 120 sqm in average). Estimation was done using the standard internal floor areas:

Studio (35 sqm) x 4391 units
Studio (45 sqm) x 4943 units
2-Room (35 sqm) x 2704 units
2-Room (45 sqm) x 11951 units
3-Room (65 sqm) x 27231 units
4-Room (90 sqm) x 87514 units
5-Room (110 sqm) x 28933 units
3gen (115 sqm) x 786 units

Real floor area shown in HDB Resale Transactions will be bigger because it will include A/C ledge (2-3 sqm) and balcony (3-4 sqm) if available. Pinnacle @ Duxton and Dawson BTO flats are smaller than the standard flat sizes.

Source of data

2001-2009: Wikipedia’s BTO article, it had a list of BTO projects (now deleted, because it had too much info for such a general encyclopedia), initially I used it to compile the above List of BTO in 2011.

2010-present: the brochures issued by HDB at every new launch. I saved all brochures and offer them for free download on my website too, see BTO brochures.

Later I found that Wikipedia was full of mistakes. One visitor reported that Spring Lodge was not cancelled. I checked the map and he is RIGHT, Wikipedia was WRONG, showing Spring Lodge as block 465 cancelled, with completion date 2007, Spring Lodge has been built, BUT as block 466 (lease commence date 2006, completion probably 2005). WTF!!?? Anyway, where is the River Edge supposedly completed in 2005? In case Wikipedia shows Spring Lodge under name River Edge, does anyone know which BTO has been cancelled in 2003?

Few more mistakes reported by visitors, mostly regarding number of units, have been corrected. Please report any more mistakes!

Note about completion date

Many people asked me if a BTO can be completed earlier. YES, the estimated completion acts like a deadline, in most cases residents collect keys up to 3 months earlier. Note that Pinnacle @ Duxton residents collected keys and moved in Dec 2009, but work continued at skybridges until May 2010 scheduled completion date.

Originally I took completion dates from Wikipedia which specify same month 4 years ahead, and I kept adding 4 years of the projects not listed in Wikipedia, but I realized THAT WAS WRONG as most 2009-2010 BTO are completed in 3-3.5 years (6-12 months faster) because HDB decided in 2010 to speed up BTO production, affecting the already-launched projects. In 2011 I have corrected the completion date for the post-2009 BTO, now specifying the “Estimated completion date” shown in sale brochures provided at BTO launch date.

Occasionally HDB show a different, updated completion date when unsold flats are re-launched in SBF, earlier than completion date estimated at the BTO original launch, but since not all BTO have unsold flats, and to prevent being blamed for providing WRONG completion date by people looking in original BTO brochures, I choose to show the original estimated completion date.

Under construction BTO have communities on Facebook and on various forums, residents posting construction updates and predict completion date. Check them!

Some people ask me what is the ACTUAL completion date or key collection date of completed BTO, I cannot answer, you should ask someone residing in that BTO, or check HDB Events Calendar, look for Welcome Party / Completion Ceremony.

You can submit site to to gain internet visibility We have submitted our site under Architecture Directory _

Non-BTO projects

Build-To-Order scheme introduced in 2001 became main supply of HDB flats, at same time precint names became standard for all new HDB developments (precint names were also added for older blocks during upgrading programmes, also added at an unknown date for all blocks in Sengkang including the ones built before introduction of BTO scheme.

But such precint names were used for other schemes too, such as SERS replacement blocks. Numerous people thinks that any HDB block that have a name is a BTO, and when a Sale of Balance Flats is done, they asked me info about “these BTO which are not found in the list of BTO” or blamed me for having an incomplete list of BTO launches.

The above list is complete list of BTO projects, however HDB does build other flats which are NOT offered for sale via BTO scheme.

See List of SERS sites for the blocks built for redevelopment of old blocks, which their surplus flats are also offered via SBF in same manner with unsold flats from BTO projects.

There are also projects which are neither BTO or SERS, the first of them, Fernvale Lodge, Wikipedia listed it as BTO, launched date 2009, completion date unknown, so I included it in my BTO table too. I saw many visitors coming to my website via google search Fernvale Lodge, so I checked it, is not a BTO neither SERS, it was built in advance and put on sale first time in the Sale of Balance Flats of September 2011, completed in 2012. I deleted it from my table of BTO.

Other projects that are neither BTO or SERS: Jurong East Court, Jurong East Vista, Tampines Lodge, Tampines Ria. Tell me if you know any more!

Dec 10

List of SERS sites

Outram Park DemolitionSelective En-bloc Redevelopment Scheme was launched in 1995 to demolish old blocks and build new blocks in nearby location to house the affected residents.

Note: this list is NOT a list of all demolished blocks.
Demolition of Rental blocks started in 1980s. I believe that some owned flats were demolished too before SERS. For example Dawson estate had over 100 blocks but only 3 of them (blk 6A, 6B, 39) appears in the list of SERS sites. Do not say that all others were rental. At least terraced houses were owned.
My guess is that there was a pre-SERS unnamed demolition programme, while SERS means demolition and build new blocks nearby. Who can confirm this or help me with more info, please leave a comment!

See also: List of SERS sites in Excel spreadsheet, and potential future SERS sites!


Date Town Completed SERS Site* Designated Replacement Site
Street Name Block No. Street Name Block No.
1 22 Aug 1995 Bukit Merah
(Tiong Bahru)
Boon Tiong Road /
Tiong Bahru Road
2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 13 (Phase 1)
1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15 and 16 (Phase 2)
Boon Tiong Road
Boon Tiong Road
2A, 2C
4A, 8A, 8B
2 1 Sep 1995 Toa Payoh Lorong 2 Toa Payoh 145, 147, 151 and 152 Lorong 2 Toa Payoh 141, 153, 153A, 154 to 156
3 8 Nov 1995 Bukit Merah Depot Road 103, 110 and 111 (Phase 1)
105, 107 and 112 (Phase 2)
Depot Road
Depot Road
103A, 103B, 104A, 104B, 106A and 106B
109A, 109B, 111A, 111B, 112A and 111B
4 8 Feb 1996 Bukit Merah Redhill Road 67 and 77 (Phase 1)
71 and 72 (Phase 2)
Redhill Close
Lengkok Bahru
Redhill Road
68 to 70
63A and 63B
73A, 74A and 77A
5 30 Apr 1996 Queenstown Margaret Drive
Forfar House
6A and 6B
Stirling Road 181 to 184
6 28 May 1996 Bedok Chai Chee Road 6 and 7 Chai Chee Road 10 and 11
7 30 Jun 1996 Ang Mo Kio Ang Mo Kio Avenue 1 309, 315 and 316 (Phase 1)
307 and 308 (Phase 2)
Ang Mo Kio Street 32
Ang Mo Kio Street 31
350 to 354
309A, 315A, 315B and 316A
8 9 Sep 1996 Jurong West
(Taman Jurong)
Corporation Drive / Hu Ching Road 139 to 145 Yung Sheng Road 177 to 180 and 184
9 5 Dec 1996 Queenstown
(Buona Vista)
Holland Drive 18 and 19 Strathmore Avenue 55 and 56
10 17 Feb 1997 Toa Payoh Toa Payoh Central 79 Lor 2 Toa Payoh 142 to 144
11 Toa Payoh Toa Payoh Lorong 2 89 Lor 2 Toa Payoh 142 to 144
12 Ang Mo Kio Ang Mo Kio Avenue 10 454 and 455 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 6 700A, 700B and 700C
13 Bukit Merah – Tiong Bahru Kim Tian Road 126 and 127 Kim Tian Road 119B, 119C and 119D
14 Bukit Merah Nile Road 51, 53 and 54 Kim Tian Road 131B and 131C
15 25 Apr 1997 Ang Mo Kio Ang Mo Kio Avenue 3 580 to 582 Ang Mo Kio Street 52 596A, 596B, 596C and 596D
16 Queenstown
(Buona Vista)
Dover Crescent 24 and 28 Dover Crescent 17 to 19
17 Kallang
Syed Alwi Road 3 to 5 Jellicoe Road 813, 815 and 816
18 17 Oct 1997 Jurong West
(Taman Jurong)
Tah Ching Road 135 to 138 Yung Sheng Road 181 to 183
19 Clementi Clementi Avenue 3 439 and 440 Clementi Avenue 3 454 to 456, 458 and 460
20 Bukit Merah Alexandra Road / Tiong Bahru Road 136A, 137A, 136 to
140, 142 and 145
Jln Membina
Kim Tian Place
19 to 23
121 and 121A
21 13 Feb 1998 Bukit Merah
(Telok Blangah)
Telok Blangah Drive 78, 80 and 81 Telok Blangah Heights 86 and 88
22 Jurong East
(Teban Gardens)
Teban Gardens Road 12 to 14, 17 and 19 (Phase 1)
21 to 23 (Phase 2)
Teban Gardens Road 60 and 62 to 65
23 21 Jul 1998 Central Short Street / Prinsep Street 1 to 7 Farrer Park Road 11 to 13 and 15
24 Central Short Street 11 to 13 Farrer Park Road 11 to 13 and 15
25 Central Outram Park 21 to 23 and 27 to 29 Cantonment Close 8, 9, 11, 13 and 16 to 19
26 7 Oct 1998 Toa Payoh
(Upper Aljunied)
Upper Aljunied Lane 1 Pine Close 1
27 Bukit Merah
(Tiong Bahru)
Jalan Membina Barat / Lower Delta Road 24, 31 and 32 Jln Membina 118A, 118B, 118C and 118D
28 Bukit Merah
(Tiong Bahru)
Lower Delta Road 102 and 103 Jln Membina 118A, 118B, 118C and 118D
29 Lim Chu Kang Lim Chu Kang Road 3, 4 and 5 Boon Lay Drive 268A, 268B and 268C
30 18 Mar 1999 Kallang
Tronoh Road 7 and 8 McNair Road 108B and 108C
31 21 Mar 1999 Bukit Batok
Hillview Avenue 1 to 8, 10 and 12 to 14 Bukit Batok West Avenue 5 383 to 386, 387 to 390 and 391 to 395
32 29 Oct 1999 Toa Payoh Toa Payoh Lorong 1A 136, 137 and 140 Lorong 2 Toa Payoh 145 to 147 and 152
33 Toa Payoh Toa Payoh Lorong 1 164 to 167 Lorong 2 Toa Payoh 145 to 147 and 152
34 Geylang Dakota Crescent 68, 70 and 72 Jalan Tiga 39, 43, 45, 47 and 49
35 20 Feb 2000 Sengkang Punggol Road /
Buangkok South Farmway 1
1, 2, 5, 206 and 207 Compassvale Lane 207A, 207B, 207C and 207D
36 Bedok Bedok North Road 83 Bedok North Road 180 to 183 and 185
37 Sembawang Sembawang Road 1 to 5 Wellington Circle 508A, 508B, 508C, 509A, 509B, 510A and 510B
38 30 Jul 2000 Bukit Merah
(Telok Blangah)
Telok Blangah Heights 70 and 71 Telok Blangah Heights 85 and 87
39 Central Outram Hill 14 to 16 Cantonment Close 12
40 12 Aug 2000 Clementi Clementi Ave 4 311 to 314 Clementi Avenue 3 457, 459, 461 and 462
41 17 Feb 2001 Queenstown Margaret Drive 96 Strathmore Avenue 48 to 52
42 Queenstown Stirling Road 172 to 175
43 3 Mar 2001 Seletar Seletar Road 1 to 4 Fernvale Lane 403A, 403B, 403C, 403D, 404A,
404B, 405A, 405B and 405C
44 Seletar Seletar West Farmway 6 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7
45 11 Mar 2001 Kallang
(Boon Keng)
Upper Boon Keng Road 6, 8, 9 and 10 Upper Boon Keng Road 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D
46 13 Jan 2003 Queenstown Tanglin Halt 50 to 54 Tanglin Halt Road 89 to 91
47 Queenstown Commonwealth Drive 57, 61 and 67 to 73
48 15 Jan 2003 Toa Payoh Lorong 5/6 Toa Payoh 28, 30, 32 and 33 Toa Payoh Central 79A, 79B, 79C, 79D and 79E
49 20 Feb 2003 Geylang Jalan Pasar Baru / Geylang Serai 1 to 3 Eunos Crescent 31 to 36
50 24 Feb 2003 Bukit Merah – Havelock Havelock Road / Taman Ho Swee 29, 31 and 33 Jalan Membina 25A, 25B, 26A, 26B, 26C, 26D, 27A and 27B
51 16 Jul 2004 Bedok Bedok South Avenue 3 46 to 50 Bedok Central 219A, 219B, 219C, 219D, 220A, 220B,
220C, 221A, 221B and 221C
52 19 Jul 2004 Queenstown
(Buona Vista)
Dover Road 30 to 32 and 34 to 39 Dover Crescent 28A, 28B, 28C and 28D
53 28 Jul 2004 Jurong West
(Taman Jurong)
Tao Ching Road 103 and 105 Tah Ching Road 337A, 337B, 337C, 337D and 338A
54 28 Mar 2005 Clementi Clementi Avenue 3 436 to 438 Clementi Avenue 3 441A and 441B
55 Clementi Clementi Avenue 3 445
56 21 Apr 2005 Queenstown
(Buona Vista)
Holland Avenue / Drive 14 to 17, 22 and 23 Holland Drive 18A, 18B, 18C and 18D
57 25 Nov 2005 Kallang
(Boon Keng)
Upper Boon Keng Road 20 Bendemeer Road# 38A, 38B, 38C, 38D and 39A
58 Geylang Sims Drive 54, 56, 57, 59, 60 and 62 Upper Boon Keng Road# 5A, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D
59 29 Dec 2005 Queenstown Margaret Drive 6C Strathmore Avenue 61A, 61B, 61C, 62A and 62B
60 Queenstown Commonwealth Avenue 27A
61 Queenstown Commonwealth Avenue 39A
62 22 Mar 2006 Jurong West
(Boon Lay Gardens)
Yung Ping Road / Yung Kuang Road 5 to 10 Kang Ching Road 338B, 339A, 339B, 339C and 339D
63 Jurong West
(Boon Lay Gardens)
Boon Lay Drive 180,181,182 and 184 Jurong West St 64@ 675A, 675B, 676A, 676B, 677A,
2677B, 677C, 678A, 678B, 678C and 678D
64 Jurong West
(Taman Jurong)
Boon Lay Avenue 216,217,219 and 220 Jurong West St 93@ 986A, 986B, 986C, 987A, 987B,
988A, 988B, 988C, 989A, 989B,
989C, 989D, 990A, 990B and 990C
65 21 Apr 2006 Bukit Merah Zion Road 88 to 92 Havelock Road 52 to 58
66 22 Jun 2006 Ang Mo Kio Ang Mo Kio Avenue 2/3/4 246 to 252 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 1 307A, 307B, 307C, 308A, 308B, 310A, 310B and 310C
67 8 Dec 2006 Queenstown
(Buona Vista)
Ghim Moh Road 9 to 12, 9A and 12A Ghim Moh Link 22, 23 and 26 to 28
68 23 Feb 2007 Bukit Merah Henderson Road 94 and 96 Kim Tian Road 126A, 126C, 127A, 127C and 127D
69 Bukit Merah
Silat Walk / Kampong
Bahru Hill / Silat Road
17 to 19 and 22 to 31
70 28 Jun 2007 Clementi Clementi Avenue 1 401 to 404, 407 to 409 Clementi Avenue 1 416 to 418, 420, 421, 423 to 425
71 12 Jul 2007 Jurong East
(Teban Gardens)
Teban Gardens Road 2 to 11 Teban Gardens Road 20 to 23
72 8 Aug 2008 Queenstown Commonwealth Drive 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80 Commonwealth Drive Blocks 50 to 54
(Commonwealth 10)
73 8 Nov 2009 Bukit Merah Bukit Merah View 110, 111, 113, 114 Boon Tiong Road Blocks 9A, 9B, 10A and 10B
(Tiong Bahru View)
74 13 Feb 2011 Clementi Clementi Avenue 5 321 to 323 Clementi Avenue 3 Blocks 440A to 440C
(Clementi Cascadia)
75 9 Nov 2011 Bedok
(East Coast)
East Coast Road 1 to 3 Chai Chee Road Blocks 807B and 807C
(Ping Yi Greens)
15 Nov 2011 Central Rochor Road 1, 2, 3, 4 Upper Boon Keng Rd 8A, 8B, 8C
(Kallang Trivista)
76 3 Dec 2011 Bukit Merah Redhill Close 1 to 3, 5 to 22 Henderson Road Blocks 95A to 95C, 96A and 96B
(City Vue @Henderson)
77 29 Dec 2011 Jurong West
(Boon Lay Gardens)
Boon Lay Drive 167 to 172 Jurong West Central 697A to 6097C, 698A to 698C
(Jurong West Blossom)
78 25 Jun 2012 Woodlands Woodlands Centre Road 1A and 2A Woodlands Drive 70 Blocks 717A and 717B
(Admiralty Vista)
79 27 Jun 2014 Queenstown Tanglin Halt Road / Commonwealth Drive 24 to 32, 33 to 38,
40 to 45, 55, 56,
58 to 60 and 62 to 66
Margaret Drive (Site A)
Margaret Drive (Site B)
Dawson Road (Ste C)
Dawson Road (Site D)
Strathmore Avenue (Site E)

* A completed site is one where all residents have vacated their sold flats.
# The replacement flats at Bendemeer Road and Upper Boon Keng Road were offered to the flats owners of Sims Drive (S/Nos. 57 and 58).
@ The replacement flats at Jurong West St 64 and Jurong West St 93 were offered to the flats owners of Boon Lay Drive (S/Nos. 63 and 64).

Interesting facts

Depot Road Estate built in early 1970s was fully redeveloped starting from 2000 except the 25-storey 5-room point blocks. HDB Press Release says this: Blocks 113 and 114 have not been included for SERS. These two point blocks are 25-storeys high with a total of 192 units of 5-room sold flats. Given their existing height, it is more viable to upgrade these blocks than to redevelop them. Hence they have been scheduled for the Main Upgrading Programme by the year 2000, in tandem with the redevelopment works in Phase II.

Hillview Estate built in 1977-1978 was the biggest SERS site and most controversial. Originally only the low-rise blocks were scheduled for demolition, but would left three 25-storey blocks in middle of nowhere so they decided to demolish entire estate, being the first 5-room point blocks blocks to be demolished, in 2006 (note: they were NOT the first demolished 25-storey blocks. In 2003 they demolished three 25-storey blocks of 4-room (possibly rental) at King George’s Avenue).
I heard 3 different stories about reason of demolition. Political stories: opposition ward at elections, so HDB decided to mix the residents in Bukit Batok. Paranormal stories: estate was haunted by ghosts and Pontianak. Army stories: nearby camp had to be upgraded to high security camp and the 25-storey blocks allowed espionage (however the army camp can be spied from Bukit Panjang 30-storey blocks).

Shortest-living blocks were Bedok South Avenue blocks 9, 10, 11, 1-room rental blocks built in mid-1970s, demolished around 1990.

How to identify future potential SERS sites

Many owners of pre-1980 flats ask when they will get SERS or what is the average age at which blocks get SERS.
First, think that between 2008 and 2014, only 8 SERS sites were identified, total 6576 flats. At this rate, 200 years are required to replace all 241343 flats built between 1970 and 1980.
Future SERS sites is a HDB top secret information, only few employees knowing about this, to prevent price speculation, if there are rumours about a future SERS site, people will value more their flats and will make SERS programme more costly for HDB, which compensate residents based on market price.
However, anyone can tell which blocks may be a potential SERS site and which blocks will be not SERS site next 20 years. Nobody can guarantee that a particular block will get SERS next 20 years, tell how soon a particular bloc will get SERS or tell which will be the next SERS site.

We can try to identify potential SERS sites by looking in Google Earth / Maps for old blocks with large spaces between them, in URA Master Plan for areas with high permissible plot ratio (over 3), and in Enquire status of upgrading programmes to check if the block never had upgrading programmes had no upgrading programmes recently. If the block had any upgrading programme, it will not get SERS next 20 years at least.

There is NO rule to demolish blocks of given age. According Press Release of 22 August 1995Only a small number of estates/areas are likely to be considered for redevelopment under SERS. They will be the exception rather than the rule. These are old HDB estates developed at low density, or selected blocks which can be redeveloped with adjacent vacant land to give a better yield of flats

Height limit matter: blocks 210-224 built in phase II of Toa Payoh, 1975-1978, having large space between blocks were likely to get SERS and be redeveloped in 40-50 storey blocks, while MacPherson estate built in 1960-1965, despite of being older, was chosen for MUP instead of SERS because of the blocks packed close apart, and the proximity of Paya Lebar airbase which limit height to 18 floors, do not allow redevelopment in higher density (notice that all recent SERS replacement blocks are 30+ floors?). The only blocks demolished in MacPherson were 1/2-room rental blocks, demolished during 1990s.
However Toa Payoh blocks were selected for LUP in 2011, also NRP in 2013 and HIP in 2012 and 2014. Why these blocks were apparently reserved for SERS then suddenly HDB done 3 upgrading programmes in 3 years, is a big mystery… does anyone know what was PAP support ratio in this precint?

Depot Road blk 103, 110, 111 built in 1975 and Ang Mo Kio blk 309, 315, 316 built in late 1970s were identified for SERS in 1995 and 1996 and demolished around 2000 after 25 years. But as 2014, NO 1980s block was identified for SERS (except Punggol Road 206 and 207, because rural centres (farmer blocks) were damaging the modern image of Sengkang new town).
I believe that during 2020s SERS will be extended to New Generation blocks built in early 1980s, but the Model A blocks introduced in 1982 and Simplified blocks introduced in 1984, as well as Executive flats introduced in 1984, will not be selected even in 2030s. 1990s blocks are designed with stronger structure to last even more.
However, no HDB block can last forever (unless it have solid interior like Egypt pyramids) and this put under question how Singapore will look in second half of 21th century. The high construction ratio from 1980 onward make HDB impossible to replace the blocks at the rate they were built.


Potential SERS sites spotted by me + non-SERS sites that people asked about

– Predictions offer NO guarantee that certain block will be announced for SERS and how soon. You can be sure of this only when the SERS site is announced.
HDB e-service enquire status of upgrading programmes may have errors. In 2010 I checked all pre-1980 blocks one by one and compiled the HDB Database in Excel for purpose of seeing all blocks at once, database which I updated in 2015 checking all blocks including those checked in 2010. Marsiling Drive blk 27-29 and 33-34 showed in 2010 that got MUP in 1997 and LUP in 2004, but now as 2015 the e-service do not show the LUP but only the MUP. Google StreetView confirm the LUP done in 2004. I assume that similar errors exist. I don’t have time to counter-check all blocks.
– You are advised to check yourself Google Streetview and eventually go personally at the block and talk with residents to check possible unlisted upgrading programmes.

In 2010 I identified few potential SERS sites with NO upgrading programmes, but most of them were meantime selected for LUP (except Toa Payoh Lorong 8, Tiong Bahru, Old Airport) while only Bukit Merah View, Clementi Avenue 5 were selected for SERS, proving how HARD is to predict correctly.

In 2011 for the first time upgraded blocks were selected for SERS: Boon Lay and Redhill which had MUP in early 1990s but were not technically feasible for Lift Upgrading Programme).
LUP started in 2001 and is scheduled to end in 2014. However, some blocks received lifts stopping at every floor during MUP in 1990s, so they do not need also LUP, making predictions HARDER.
But, any block that still do not have lifts that stop at every floor is very likely to get SERS. Anyone who spot such blocks is invited to leave a comment!
Blocks who received lifts that stop at every floor does not mean that will be NEVER demolished, but if a upgrading programme was done, the block will stand at least 20 more years.

There are over 10 potential SERS sites with MUP in 1990s but given by how few SERS sites were announced last years, nobody knows which will be selected sooner and how soon.

Near Central

Tiong Bahru post-war blocks (built 1948-1954) are not feasible for LUP due of staircase position. This is a potential SERS site but many people (including me) hope that they will be put under conservation, like the nearby pre-war blocks.
Old Airport Road Estate blk 2-32 were built in 1950s, however these blocks never appeared in HDB resale transactions listings, someone told me in 2013 that all them are rental blocks and many flats are vacant, and in 2014 all news websites announced that will be cleared in 2016 and 15 of 17 SIT blocks will be demolished for an “immediate redevelopment”.
Old Airport Road blk 93, 95, 97, 99 built by HDB in 1960s are ownership flats, got MUP in 1992 and nothing else. I believe that they may get SERS around 2017 when the rental blocks will be cleared, the replacement blocks for these 4 blocks may be built here.
Bukit Ho Swee estate got MUP in phases in 1992, 1994, 1996, then the blocks from first 2 phases got LUP in 2006 (probably MUP in 1996 upgraded lifts too), although it does have potential of redevelopment to 40+ storey, the LUP guarantee that will NOT get SERS sooner than MacPherson estate.
York Hill Estate, there are 8 rental blocks and 3 ownership blocks (8, 9, 10) which got MUP in 1994 but nothing else. But first HDB need to build enough rental replacement blocks. Someone should check how many units are empty, when majority of rental blocks gets empty, SERS may come for the owned blocks!
Jalan Batu blocks 1-14 underwent MUP in 1996 but nothing else, they sit on prime land, may get SERS soon.
Farrer Road blocks 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 got MUP in 1994 and HDB Enquire Status of upgrading programmes says clearly that no LUP was announced. Clearly a SERS site! (thanks to KZ for spotting this out). Update: blocks 1 and 5 got LUP in 2011-2012.

One of biggest dilemmas is the SERS potential of SIT terraced houses in Stirling Road and Jalan Bahagia. Lots of terraced houses were demolished during 1990s but the fact that after 2000 no more were demolished may indicate that HDB is willing to preserve these two clusters of terraced houses, how long… nobody knows. If they will get SERS, HDB need to compensate owners with record sums of money, which will give owners too much profit compared with price of a new HDB flat. Probably they wait until near end of lease when their market value will be lower. I wish to know what was the process of demolition of terraced houses in Dawson estate in late 1990s.

Ang Mo Kio

Blocks 207-208, 215-216 underwent MUP in 1998 including lifts that stop at every floor, but were excluded from subsequent upgrades affecting neighbor blocks, together with block 217 1-room rental and nearby carpark, can free a large piece of land.
Blocks 303-306, 319-321 also underwent MUP in 1998 and nothing else, there is a rental block nearby (318).
No other SERS sites are expected in Ang Mo Kio, all blocks got LUP or MUP in late 1990s or later.


Chai Chee blk 30-40 (built early 1970s) underwent MUP in 1993 but no LUP so may be a SERS site, maybe during 2020s. blk 33-34 got LUP in 2012 making entire estate less likely to get SERS.
Bedok blk 22-30 got MUP in 1996 then nothing else.
No SERS sites are expected in Bedok, all blocks got LUP or MUP in late 1990s or later.


Sin Ming blocks 22, 23 24 got MUP in 1995 and only block 25 got LUP in 2009, this is a sign that other 3 blocks are reserved for a future SERS site (thanks to Low Joo Ling comment).

Bukit Batok

Starting from 2014 I have been asking by multiple people if various blocks in Bukit Batok will get SERS (example: Justin comment). Even if Bukit Batok have potential of redevelopment into 30-storey blocks, there is NO sign that SERS programme will be extended to 1980s towns, also all blocks in Bukit Batok got LUP, so I am 100% sure that will be NO SERS in Bukit Batok until at least 2030. I think that residents are spreading false rumours!


No more SERS sites are expected in Clementi, all blocks got LUP or MUP in late 1990s or later.


MacPherson estate, although built in same time with Tanglin Halt, did not got any SERS to date, because of the proximity of Paya Lebar airbase which limit height to 18 floors. However, the 2013 announcement that Paya Lebar airbase will be closed, and the lack of other upgrading programmes after MUP done in 1993-1994, indicate that SERS will come in distant future.
There are 5574 dwelling units in the blocks 21-83 built in 1960s (excluding add-on blocks built 1990s), probably will be redeveloped in 2-3 phases, starting from late 2020s.
Can someone check if the MUP-upgraded lifts stop at every floor?

Jurong West

Taman Jurong blk 116-122 underwent MUP in 1998 but nothing else, may get SERS during 2020s.
Boon Lay blk 207-215 underwent MUP in 1997 but nothing else, they have very big spaces between blocks thus suitable for SERS, but where the replacement blocks can be built? HDB filled all available land in Jurong West with BTOs.
Pandan Gardens blk 410-412 did not got LUP in 2009 when neighbor blocks got. They got only IUP in 1994 and as far I know IUP do not upgrade lifts like MUP, so they are likely a SERS site, but how soon?

Marine Parade

This early 1970s estate remains the most expensive HDB estate as price per sqft, thus HDB will need to compensate residents with too high sums of money to make SERS worth it. I believe that HDB will keep it intact until blocks will be 50-60-70 years old and value of flat will be lower, then do SERS. Most likely after Paya Lebar airbase will be closed and height restriction of ~25 floors will be removed. Where can be the replacement site?


Commonwealth View and Tanglin Halt, built in early 1960s, underwent MUP in batches between 1992 and 2000, they sit on prime land with potential of 50-storey blocks so may be a good idea to do SERS in late 2010s or 2020s. But due of large number of blocks, doing SERS would take at least 2 decades and is difficult to predict which will be the first to be demolished. Blocks 74-80 were identified for SERS in 2008.
After 6 more years, SURPRISE happened! All remaining Tanglin Halt was identified for SERS (3538 flats).
We expect Commonwealth (3384 flats) to have same fate in 6 or more years, the replacement site may be in Tanglin Halt which will be demolished around 2021.
Mei Ling / Stirling Road blocks 151-164 got MUP in 1996-1998, blocks 167-170 underwent MUP in 1993, both nothing else, while nearby blocks 165, 166, 168A, 171 that got MUP in 1993 too got also LUP in 2009. This may indicate that the blocks 167-170 are reserved for demolition, or they did not had lifts upgraded during MUP due of costs.

Toa Payoh

Blocks 1-3 got MUP in 1990 then nothing else, may be a SERS site soon!
Blocks 4-15 got MUP in 1994 then nothing else, may be included in same SERS site.
Blocks 34, 38, 47, 51-53, 56-61, 107-128, 158-163, 168-174 … got MUP in 1993-1995 and nothing else, are also candidates for SERS but not in near future, may take 10-20 years to replace all them, nobody can tell which ones will be first.


Government announced in 2013 that Paya Lebar Airbase will be closed, and according a Wikipedia editor that its edits are being reverted in SERS article, this will happens in 2026, but officially there is NO announcement about closure date. This will eliminate height restriction and make potential SERS sites the MacPherson 1960s estate as well as large areas in Geylang and Hougang. I am questioning if the 280 meter nationwide height limit will be removed too.

Page history

– Page created in January 2012, showing all completed and in progress SERS sites. For in progress SERS sites (2008-present) I had info about Replacement Sites and Deadline for Submission of Resale / Transfer Applications, taken from HDB website. For completed SERS sites, HDB do not provide an official list of replacement blocks, so I have to look on map and guess which blocks could be the replacement for SERS sites. I found that is possible to see older press releases on and get the info about replacement blocks, but I constantly get messages that the server is down or page not found…
– June 2012: added info about replacement blocks for 2005-2007 SERS sites from, as well as the number of units for all 2005-present SERS sites.
– October 2012: added info for 1995/1997 sites from I can add built year too. I should expand the table (number of columns)? Suggestions are welcome!
– July 2014: I found that HDB added on its official website the complete list of replacement blocks (this happened since early 2014, but I was not aware of). I remade the table, deleted from website the additional info such as number of units and Deadline. If you are interested in this info you can view it in the XLS version of above table.

Dec 08

List of Executive Condos

Executive Condo PoolExecutive Condominium is a form of subsidized housing built by private developers, having same eligibility restrictions like HDB (family nucleus, citizens and permanent residents), you should dispose any other property 30 months before applying, minimum occupation period of 5 years before you can sell to citizens and PR, even single PR. After 10 years since TOP date, all restrictions are lifted and even single foreigners can buy. See the TOP date in the following table.

Looking for condo floor plans? Do a search on Google Images, most EC have floor plans public available on their websites, I do not plan to collect EC floor plans or copy them on my website.

Since August 2015 the income ceiling is raised to $14,000, will this help developers selling units, considering that BTO income ceiling was raised as well and may take away EC buyers?

Completed EC
(sorted by TOP date)
Location Street address TOP Date Units
Eastvale Pasir Ris Pasir Ris Drive 3 27 Jan 1999
Westmere Jurong East Jurong East Street 13 27 Feb 1999
Simei Green Tampines Simei Street 4 28 Apr 1999
Windermere Choa Chu Kang Choa Chu Kang Street 64 16 Sep 1999
Chestervale Bukit Panjang Bangkit Road 20 Mar 1999
Pinevale Tampines Tampines Street 73 28 Jul 1999
Yew Mei Green Choa Chu Kang Choa Chu Kang North 6 1 Sep 2000
Summerdale Jurong West Boon Lay Drive 8 Sep 2000
The Rivervale Sengkang Rivervale Link 28 Jun 2000
The Florida Hougang Hougang Avenue 7 18 Feb 2000 /
30 May 2000 *
Northoaks Woodlands Woodlands Crescent 3 Oct 2000
Woodsvale Woodlands Woodlands Drive 72 5 Aug 2000
The Floravale Jurong West Westwood Avenue 13 Oct 2000
The Eden Tampines Tampines Street 34 16 Apr 2003
The Dew Bukit Batok Bt Batok Street 21 19 Jul 2003
Bishan Loft Bishan Bishan Street 11 26 Sep 2003
Lilydale Yishun Yishun Avenue 6 29 Mar 2003
Nuovo Ang Mo Kio Ang Mo Kio Avenue 9 31 Aug 2004 #
Park Green Sengkang Rivervale Link 30 Sep 2004
Whitewater Pasir Ris Pasir Ris Street 72 31 Jan 2005 /
1 Mar 2005 *
The Esparis Pasir Ris Pasir Ris Drive 4 22 Jun 2005 #
The Quintet Choa Chu Kang Choa Chu Kang Street 64 23 Oct 2006
La Casa Woodlands Woodlands Drive 16 22 Feb 2008 /
25 Apr 2008 *
Prive Punggol Punggol Field 17 Jul 2013 680
Esparina Residences Woodlands Buangkok Drive / Compassvale Bow 11 Sep 2013 573
The Canopy Yishun Yishun Avenue 11 14 Jan 2014 406
Austville Residences Sengkang Sengkang East Avenue / Buangkok Drive 22 Apr 2014 540
Belysa Pasir Ris Pasir Ris Drive 1 / Elias Road 28 May 2014 315
RiverParc Residence Punggol Punggol Drive / Punggol East 19 Jun 2014 504
Arc @Tampines Tampines Tampines Avenue 8 5 Aug 2014 574
Blossom Residences Bukit Panjang Segar Road 5 Sep 2014 602
Watercolours Pasir Ris Pasir Ris Drive 3 / Pasir Ris Link 31 Dec 2014 416
The Tampines Trilliant Tampines Tampines Central 7 6 Feb 2015 670
The Rainforest Choa Chu Kang Choa Chu Kang Drive 6 Mar 2015 466
Twin Waterfalls Punggol Punggol Way / Punggol Field 2 Jun 2015 728
OneCanberra Yishun Yishun Avenue 7 / Canberra Drive 19 Sep 2015 665
Heron Bay Hougang Upper Serangoon View /
Upper Serangoon Road
7 Oct 2015 394
Waterwoods Punggol Punggol Field Walk / Punggol East 1 Dec 2015 373
Under construction EC
(sorted by land sale order)
Location Street address Estimated
Waterbay Punggol Punggol Central / Edgefield Plains 2016 383
The Topiary Sengkang Fernvale Lane 2016 700
Forestville Woodlands Woodlands Avenue 5 / Woodlands Drive 16 2016 653
CityLife@Tampines Tampines Tampines Central 7 / Tampines
Avenue 7 / Tampines Avenue 9
2016 514
Ecopolitan Punggol Punggol Way / Punggol Walk 2016 512
Twin Fountains Woodlands Woodlands Avenue 6 /
Woodlands Drive 16
2016 418
Lush Acres Sengkang Sengkang West Way / Fernvale Link Nov 2016 380
Sea Horizon Pasir Ris Pasir Ris Drive 3 / Pasir Ris Rise Nov 2016 495
SkyPark Residences Sembawang Sembawang Crescent / Sembawang Drive 2016-2017 502
Bellewoods Woodlands Woodlands Avenue 5 / Woodlands Avenue 6 Nov 2017 561
Bellewaters Sengkang Anchorvale Crescent Nov 2017 656
The Amore Punggol Punggol Central / Edgedale Plains July 2017 378
The Terrace Punggol Punggol Drive / Edgedale Plains Mar 2018 747
Lake Life Jurong West Yuan Ching Road / Tao Ching Road 2017 546
Westwood Residences Jurong West Westwood Avenue Aug 2018 480
The Brownstone Sembawang Canberra Drive Jan 2019 638
The Vales Sengkang Anchorvale Crescent August 2018 517
Sol Acres Choa Chu Kang Choa Chu Kang Grove March 2019 1237
Signature at Yishun Yishun Yishun Street 51 May 2018 525
The Criterion Yishun Yishun Street 51
Parc Life Sembawang Sembawang Avenue ? 620
Wandervale Choa Chu Kang Choa Chu Kang Drive

* Project received phased TOP:

* Florida (TFD)
– Phase 1 consists of Blocks 70 & 78, TOP 18 Feb 2000.
– Phase 2 consists of Blocks 72 & 76, TOP 30 May 2000.

* Whitewater (WEC)
– Phase 1 consists of Blocks 27, 29, 31, 33, TOP on 31 Jan 2005.
– Phase 2 consists of Blocks 21, 23 & 25, TOP on 1 Mar 2005.

* La Casa
– Phase 1 consists of Blocks 50, 52, 54, 56 & 58 on 22 Feb 2008.
– Phase 2 consists of Blocks 60, 62, 64, 66 & 68 on 25 Apr 2008.

# Certificate of Statutory Completion (CSC).


NO executive condominium was topped between 2008 and 2013, because HDB phased out EC scheme in favor of DBSS scheme, resumed EC land sales in 2010 in parallel with DBSS, then suspended DBSS land sales in 2011.

EC completed in 2013-2014 had original estimated completion date around 6 months later. so I guess that the current under construction EC may be completed 6 months earlier than indicated.

I update the above table every few months. TOP date for completed EC can be seen on HDB InfoWeb too, frequently updated. Land sales for future EC launch can be seen on: HDB InfoWeb > Land sales > Residential > Executive Condominium (I do not post direct link to PDF, every time when HDB sell a new EC site, the PDF is renamed). Estimated completion and number of units sourced from EC websites made by agents. Unfortunately these websites often provide contradictory info.

Although I am fascinated mostly by HDB, and I post on my website things that cannot be found anywhere else, I added this List of EC page on my website in early 2012, because several visitors have suggested this, but their suggestion also had a negative effect: occasionally some people attempt to purchase an EC flat via me despite that I am not agent, then blame me what is the purpose of running such an real estate website. If you want to buy an EC you can contact the partner agents shown below.

Are you agent, interior designer, anything else related to real estate?
Advertise on my website! See traffic stats and ad prices.

PatrickNeo EC Compare advertise here

If you are looking to rent a condo, you need to visit Key Location and check its unique search function where you can find condos by commute time. Also, it will be a smart move to check historical rent data there to have accurate impressions of market rates before contacting an agent.

Executive Condo statistics

Executive Condos offer flats with 2, 3, 4 bedrooms, 3-bedroom being dominant (unlike private condos dominated by studios and 2-bedroom). A small number of 5-bedroom flats popped in EC launched during 2013.

Like DBSS, EC are designed by private developers hungry for profits, to sell as many units possible, the apartments were downsized and latest Executive Condo apartments are smaller than HDB flats. I do not know exact info about number of rooms distribution in pre-2008 EC but typical flats available starts with 3-bedroom which were around 110 sqm, and ends in penthouses, largest being 324 sqm, in The Quintet (source). In the new EC launch after 2010, sizes like 80 sqm for 3-bedroom and 110 sqm for 4-bedroom are common. Note that the sizes include an oversized balcony and A/C ledge, while the bedrooms can be small as 6 sqm.

Penthouses did existed in Executive Condos, being sold at high prices unrealistic for an income ceiling of $12.000. Government decided in January 2013 to cap the apartment size in EC to 160 sqm, Forestville being the LAST EC with bigger apartment sizes, biggest penthouse being 252 sqm. Stupid rule in my opinion, developers being unable to build bigger apartments will start increasing psf (price per square foot).

Dec 06

HDB flat types and their sizes

Flat type abbreviation: STD = Standard, I = Improved, NG = New Generation, S = Simplified, A = Model A.
Beware of people who abbreviate Standard as S instead of STD.

1960s-1970s flat types (refuse chute in kitchen)
1-Room Emergency (1960-?) – all demolished
2-Room Emergency (1960-?) – demolished except 5 blocks
1-Room Standard (1960-?) – no evidence if it existed, in my opinion should exists
2-Room Standard (1960-1970) – around 41 sqm, one WC/shower (sample floor plan)
3-Room Standard (1960-1970) – around 50-55 sqm, one WC/shower (sample floor plan)
4-Room Standard (1960-1970) – around 70-75 sqm, one WC/shower, sometimes separate (sample floor plan)
1-Room Improved (1966-1978) – supposedly 33 sqm but multiple layouts exists (sample floor plan)
2-Room Improved (1966-1978) – usually 44 sqm, separate WC and shower (sample floor plan)
3-Room Improved (1966-1978) – usually 60 sqm, separate WC and shower (sample floor plan), 3½-Room I Modified 69 sqm
4-Room Improved (1966-1980) – usually 82-84 sqm, separate WC and shower (sample floor plan)
5-Room Standard (1974-1980) – 117-123 sqm, two toilets (sample floor plan)

1970s-1980s flat types (refuse chute in kitchen)
3-Room New Generation (1976-1989) – usually 67 sqm, two toilets, (sample floor plan), 3½-Room NG Modified 82 sqm
4-Room New Generation (1976-1989) – usually 92 sqm, two toilets (sample floor plan)
5-Room Improved (1977-1990s) – usually 121-123 sqm, two toilets (sample floor plan)
3-Room Simplified (1984-1989) – usually 64 sqm, two full-size toilets (sample floor plan)
4-Room Simplified (1984-1989) – usually 84 sqm, two full-size toilets (sample floor plan)
3-Room Model A (1982-1989) – usually 73-75 sqm, two full-size toilets (sample floor plan), 3½-Room A Modified 88-90 sqm, rare
4-Room Model A (1982-1990s) – usually 105 sqm, two full-size toilets (sample floor plan)
5-Room Model A (1982-1985) – usually 135 sqm, two full-size toilets (just few built, replaced by Executive Apartment) (sample floor plan)
5-Room Model A Maisonette (1983-1984) – most 140 sqm, some up to 155 sqm (TWO floors, just few build, replaced by Executive Maisonette) (sample floor plan)
Executive Apartment (1984-1990s) – usually 142-146 sqm (ONE floor) (sample floor plan)
Executive Maisonette (1984-1990s) – most 147 sqm, some up to 160 sqm (TWO floors) (sample floor plan)
Multi-Generation (1987) – 132 sqm / 151-171 sqm, most 166 sqm (ONE floor, 2 entrances) (sample floor plan)
4-Room / 5-Room / Executive “Jumbo” (1992-1996) – around 90-192 sqm (adjoined by HDB, fresh leases), 1 entrance, 2 or 3 full-size toilets.
4-Room / 5-Room / Executive Adjoined Flat (any year) – around 90-175 sqm (adjoined by owners, original leases), 2 entrances unless owner walled one, 2 kitchens unless owner converted one into something else, up to 4 toilets.

Early 1990s flat types (centralized refuse chute, no household shelter)
4-Room Model A (1993-1998) – usually 100-108 sqm
5-Room Improved (1993-1998) – usually 120-128 sqm
5-Room Model A (1993-1998) – usually 133-137 sqm
Executive Apartment (1993-1998) – usually 142-150+ sqm (1 floor)
Executive Maisonette (1993-1998) – usually 144-146 sqm, penthouse maisonettes up to 215 sqm (2 floors)
(sample floor plans)

Late 1990s-present flat types (with household shelter)
Studio Apartment – 35 / 45 sq m (2001-present)
2-Room Model A – 45 sq m (2008-present)
3-Room Model A – 60 sq m (2002-2008), 65 sq m (2008-present)
4-Room Model A – 100 sq m (1998-2000), 90 sq m (2000-present)
4-Room Model A2 – 90 sq m (1998-2000), 85 sq m, some 80 sq m (2000-present), only in SERS blocks
5-Room Improved – 120 sq m (1998-2000), 110 sq m (2000- present)
Executive Apartment – 140 sq m (1998-2000), 125 / 130 sq m (2000-2005)
Executive Maisonette – 140 sq m (1998-2000)
3gen flat – 115 sqm (introduced 2013, to be completed 2016-onwards), 4 bedrooms, 3 toilets, home ownership restricted for couples + 1 additional family relative
Note: the naming system (Improved / Model A) is no longer used in sales brochures since 1998, but is still displayed in the Resale flat prices.
(sample floor plans)

IMPORTANT! Flat type naming represent approximate size in sqm and number of rooms, NOT the floor plan layout. Do not associate each flat name with the sample floor plan shown there.
Many different floor plan layouts exists with same name of flat type. See HDB floor plans page for more floor plans!

I saw a list of HDB flat types & models on as well as many other blogs, I have no idea who copied it and who was the original author or it, but since it was wrong and incomplete, I came with idea to make my OWN list of flat types rather than copying it in my website too.
At I am the original author of the above list. Please do not copy it without my approval!

Block types
Slab block – long narrow corridor-style block with 4 to 40+ units per floor
Point block – 4 apartments per floor, no corridors, being placed at distance from other blocks
Atrium block – a term introduced in 1990s denoting blocks with more than 4 units per floor but without long corridors
All 3 terms are no longer in use since late 1990s.

HDB blocks built after 2000s are a mixture, point/atrium blocks having 4 to 12+ units per floor, long corridors but without rooms facing to corridors, and the blocks are placed close each other so they looks like a slab block when viewed from street.


What is the difference between Studio and 2-Room
Floor plan is similar, BUT…
Studio are restricted to age 55+, sold with 30-year leases, with built-in kitchen cabinets, wardrobe, elderly-friendly features, cannot be sold in open market.
2-Room can be purchased by anyone, sold with 99-year leases, with bare rooms. 2-Room can be purchased by singles too since July 2013.

What is the difference between 4-Room and 5-Room
Many people asked me this, because all BTO-era flats have 3 bedrooms.
The difference is 20 sqm, where these 20 sqm are added vary much, larger living room including study corner, larger bedrooms, or in few cases, an extra bedroom!

What is the difference between Standard and Premium HDB flats
Premium contract: tiles, wall paint, doors, kitchen cabinets, probably wardrobes too (not sure), plus better outdoor landscape, and in best cases, basement carpark. Most premium flats have full-height windows, but this is not a rule.
Standard contract: raw concrete waiting for your renovation, doors optional.
Since late 2000s premium flats are offered only in good locations, near MRT or near waterfront.

What is the difference between BTO and DBSS flats
Can’t believe that some people do not know this and asked me.
BTO are sold by HDB at subsidized prices while DBSS are sold by profit-hungry private developers at super fucking crazy outrageous high prices.
Beside this, DBSS imitate condos including their bad features, such as smaller rooms but big balcony and A/C ledge, there is NO advantage over BTO flats.
DBSS flats are supposedly higher quality than BTO premium flats, but recent DBSS projects proved otherwise, residents were upset about quality in TrivelisCentrale 8, and Pasir Ris One.

Beware of HDB naming system!

The naming system (4-Room, 5-Room, etc) is confusing, it do not denotes actual number of rooms, it define the flat size in square meters. The total flat floor area is (too) standardized after 1998. Probably the reason of standardization is related to prices and taxes. Individual room sizes may vary very much, for example: in 1985-2000 period, some 4-Room Model A had 3 small bedrooms and a livingroom big enough to build a 5th room (example), while some 5-Room Improved from same period had only 3 (but big) bedrooms and a livingroom (example).

Before 1988, all 5-Room and Executives had 3 bedrooms and a large room with separate living and dining areas, Executive had an additional utility/maid room.

During 1988-2000, the 5-Room had 4 bedrooms and a small livingroom, many owners demolished one bedroom get a proper sized livingroom, while Executives had 4 bedrooms and a big livingroom, sometimes separate living and dining areas (in most cases 4th room is called study and have two sliding doors, or no door at all).

After 2000, 5-Room are nothing else than 3 bedroom flats with larger livingroom, while Executive Apartments have 3 bedrooms plus an open study area. Since Executive Apartments were phased out in 2005, the study area was reintroduced in 5-room flats.

My opinion: too much standardization in flat sizes, the naming system (Improved, Model A) should be dropped from resale transactions or replaced with a new name, because since 1998, ALL 4-Room are Model A and all 5-Room are Improved. This creates confusion with the 1970s Improved and 1980s Model A flats, also the today 5-Room are nothing else than a flat with 4 larger rooms, they are the smallest flats named 5-Room in HDB history.

Dec 04

Database of HDB blocks in Excel format

The HBD database involve collecting data from multiple sources and typing it in Excel. Hundreds hours of work!

I started compiling data voluntarily project for my personal research, without any marketing study, and now I post on website, maybe other people are interested too. I do not know who will be potential customers, I do not know if my work will suit YOUR needs… YOU can tell me your requirements or suggest changes in data structure… we can negotiate a price, based by amount of effort needed to compile the data. See also the Condo Database.

I completed whole Singapore in December 2014 in terms of block number, address, building type and lease year. As June 2015 I completed also number of units. In June 2015 I added also postal codes, requested by a customer. If you need any additional info, just request it!

Need info about certain blocks and NOT interested to purchase whole database?
Contact me and I will provide the info needed (if available)!

HDB Database, block number, street address, number of units, upgrading programmes

Complete: block number, street address, building type, postal codes, lease year.


HDB Database with number of units

Complete: block number, street address, building type, number of units breakdown by flat type.


HDB Database, block number, street address, lease year, postal code

Complete: block number, street address, building type, postal codes, lease year, number of units in text form, breakdown by flat type (number of units in different columns), upgrading programmes, building year (if different than lease year), demolition year.
Bonus: GIS coordinates, latitude and longitude (available for free at request)
If you want also number of floors and units per floor to be completed, we should negotiate an additional fee (see below).


Summary (list of towns, NO individual blocks)

List of estates by phase of development (170 rows), same like in the SAMPLE file. you can “buy” this free thing, to test the automatic download system before purchasing full database.

Including: number of blocks, number of units by flat type per estate, average number of units per block. Useful for students or other curious people.

Automatic download for purchase whole Singapore.
If you purchase one town, contact me before paying so I can put the town in a separate Excel file and upload it on server for autodownload, or pay directly and I will email you manually. Keeping 26 separate Excel files up-to-date is difficult. Separating one town and uploading it on server in the day you purchase, guarantee getting latest updates.
If you purchase 3 or more towns, I can offer a discount from the standard price of 10 cents per building.
See also Terms and conditions!

HDB Database statistics

Total number of tagged HDB buildings in database: 13773 (as 23 July 2015).
Building type tag breakdown:
Residential flats: 10305 + 1298 demolished (including shophouses or combo blocks flats+MSCP).
Multi-storey carparks (MSCP): 993 + 3 demolished.
Pavilions: 698 + 5 demolished.
Other buildings: 389 + 82 demolished.

Database include also few hundred non-HDB buildings (not tagged, not included in above count).

Accuracy guaranteed for block numbers, street addresses, postal codes, lease year, number of units.
Not guaranteed for number of floors and units per floor, and for building type tag. Some 2-storey shophouses may be tagged incorrectly as residential. Some recently demolished blocks may have demolished tag missing and counted as standing blocks.

Update frequency will be according frequency of people buying database. If you purchase today, I will update today and email you latest version.

Database was updated in July 2015 and include all BTO launched up to end-2014.
If necessary, I can add easily new blocks as soon a new BTO is launched, but adding number of units for blocks when they are completed is difficult (difficult to notice that a block was completed), also updating the list of upgrading programmes is very time-consuming.
I also update database with more demolished blocks found on, or National Archive photos. My ULTIMATE GOAL is to have in database all SIT/HDB blocks ever built.

Number of units is available for for 9503 blocks (the rest up to 10299 are under construction or shophouses), not available for blocks demolished before 2010. Total: 980108 units, averaging 103 units per block. 940871 dwelling units are in use according Annual Report 2014. My database figure is higher because include flats completed after 31 March 2014 and also some demolished flats. Every year, few blocks are completed or demolished, keeping this figure up-to-date is difficult.

What the HDB Database currently include

– Block numbers – complete for all Singapore. Source:
(40% done in 2009-2010, remaining 60% done in June 2014)

Street address – complete except blocks under construction and blocks demolished before 2000. Source: HDB Resale Flat Prices.
(30% done in 2010, remaining 70% done in December 2014)

Building type tag – complete. This column act also as filter, non-HDB buildings have it left empty, who wants a simple list of HDB buildings can filter it to delete empty rows (estate header row, schools, condos, etc). Flats / Carpark / Pavilion / Other + Demolished tags, so the real estate agents can filter and delete demolished buildings, while historical researchers (like myself) can keep them.
(added in November 2014)

Building name – complete for all blocks that have a name. Source:

Postal codes – complete for all residential buildings.
(personally not interested, but 1 customer suggested postal codes in July 2014, a 2nd customer requested postal codes in May 2015, so in June 2015 I added them)

– Lease year – complete for all blocks available on resale market (so NO year for carparks, rental blocks, or blocks within MOP). Source: HDB Resale Flat Prices.
(30% done in 2010 and remaining 70% completed in December 2014)

Lease year-month-day – In June 2015 I started improving lease date by adding day and month beside year, sourcing from HDB Centralized Map.

Number of floors, units per floor, estimated number of units: 40% done in 2009 estimated from shadow length in satellite photos, before Google Streetview introduction, may have errors +/- 1-2 floors, additional 20% done accurately in 2010 by counting blocks in Google Streetview.
In 2014 I decided to complete database without number of floors because it was taking too much effort and I believed that it is no longer needed, precise number of units became available in HDB enquire status of upgrading programmes, no longer need to multiply floors with units per floor.
In 2015 a customer (Renata, see her comment) offered me a BONUS of $400 to complete number of floors for remaining 40% of blocks, but after doing half of job she told me that cannot pay more and STOP THE JOB.
I can resume the job and do remaining 20% if another customer is interested in paying a BONUS for completing number of floors. If do you want also to count the 40% estimated in 2009-2010, I can do if I have sufficient time, and you need to pay my time.

Number of units (text form) & upgrading programmes – complete for all residential buildings (about 9500 buildings). Source: Enquire status of upgrading programmes.
(25% done in 2010, remaining 75% ON HOLD waiting for a customer paying me…. been paid in May 2015 and completed in June 2015 (complete for all blocks that were standing to at least 2010)

Number of units breakdown by flat type in separate columns – complete for all residential buildings (about 9500 buildings). Idea used since 2011 for List of BTO projects. In 2014 I planned to use it in the future for HDB Database too, but… A DILEMMA: number of units is VARYING over time in 3-room blocks where people adjoin two flats, what we should do? I propose breakdown by original flat types, do you agree? I decided in June 2015 to breakdown BOTH original and current number of units. Completed!
(Done in 2014 only for Jurong West for showing SAMPLE file. Actual job was done in June 2015 for all blocks)

What I can include or change in HDB Database

– Reorganize towns/precint structureit’s important to know WHO are the potential customers and how they intend to use the data, to provide the RIGHT data structure.

Add unit numbers (for BTO blocks only) – I know how useful would be to have the unit number ranges for every block, but this is NOT POSSIBLE. Hong Kong does have showing unit number and position. When Singapore is going to have the same?Going from block to block to check mailboxes and get unit numbers, takes more than a man’s lifetime. HDB started providing site plans with unit numbers in 2001 via BTO system, I have collected all BTO brochures since December 2009 and for older BTO, I may have site plans collected from SBF. Will be anyone interested in purchasing a database with unit numbers… for BTO blocks only?

Add latitude/longitude GPS location for every block – suggested by 1 people in 2013, too hard task, NOT in mood to do it (unless I am paid a big sum of $$)

Remove number of floors – Floors can be only counted manually on Google StreetView thus I can save a lot of time by NOT adding number of floors.

– Remove condos and other private buildings from database, stick on HDB only.

– Make a separate database “Condo Directory”.

– Sell the database via monthly subscription instead of one-time payment. I don’t know how to make a subscription payment. Maybe some webdesigner with higher experience than mine can help?

– Anything else necessary? Your ideas are welcome!

History (short version)

Started in 2009, purpose: personal research about housing density in selected estates and use the results in designing own apartments, I abandoned in 2011 after completing 40% because it required too much effort for a non-paid job.
Being a voluntary project done without any specific target, I changed my mind numerous times, making the database a MESS, table layout being different from town to town depending by the date each town was compiled.
In 2012 I published on website a SAMPLE with one town, as marketing experiment, to see who (if anyone) is interested. I was willing to re-compile entire database, this time as PAID service for professional use…. but I was facing with lack of feedback, LAZY customers do not inform me exactly what data are looking for!

Took 2 years to get a rough idea what people are looking for… and resumed working in July 2014, I done A LOT of changes in data structure, cleaned (most of) mess, completed whole Singapore in December 2014 in terms of block number, address and lease year. Number of units remained as done in 2011 (25% completed), the rest 75% will be done AFTER finding a customer willing to pay 50% before 50% after.
That customer came in May 2015, work started, completing number of units for ALL 10,000+ blocks by June 2015!


History – original HDB database made for my personal research

– In late 2008 I started studying architecture.
– In early 2009 I started the HDB database, a table with 4 columns: block number, floors, units per floor, total units. I took from map the names/numbers of HDB blocks as well as schools, religious structures and every other building within HDB estates.
I was smart enough to identify number of units per floor by looking in satellite photos, and guessed the number of floors by measuring shadow length and compare with the shadow of a block with known height, multiplied to get an estimated number of units per block and per precint.
I made for each town a summary, list of HDB precints with their number of units land area in hectares, plus condos, landed, park, industrial land, to calculate land usage and housing density.
In the same time I collected floor plans and learned the history of HDB, at end of year I published this page HDB Floor Plans 1930-2010s.
– In Dec 2009, Google launched Street View in Singapore, which was very helpful for me. I re-checked the database, corrected block heights and got more precise estimation of number of units. Also added building year.
– In 2010 HDB website shows the number of units in upgrading programmes. I started re-making database and replace the estimated numbers with correct official numbers. By this way I also added street address and upgrading programmes announced for each block.
– In 2011 I abandoned the work because after re-making and re-re-remaking the database… sounds like a waste of time and I did not saw a real usage of such database. With all new ideas that came meantime, several hundred hours would have been necessary to complete database nationwide with number of floors, units per floor, precise number of units, upgrading programmes, etc.

HDB Database covered about 20% (western part of Singapore) in the simple 2009 layout and another 20% in the improved 2010 layout (pre-1980 towns). This 40% was more than enough for the original purpose (personal research). The format was a MESS:

– Number of columns in database varied from one town to another.
– Some street names were abbreviated, others were full names.
– Blocks with varying height were in towns done in 2010 a single row, but in towns done in 2009 were split on separate rows for each height.
– BTO names were sometimes above list of blocks, sometimes on the left.
– And few more…

Note that in 2009 I had no school or job, thus all day was free time… but since 2012 I work for people, customers paying me to do various things, thus I no longer have time for voluntary (non-paid) works

In the same time I made a map of Singapore using AutoCAD, drawing all roads in certain HDB estates, and measured land size of various housing areas. Purpose: personal research about housing density in selected estates and use the results in designing own apartments.

New HDB database that I intend to sell for professional use

In mid-2012, one of my other hobbies, the Car Database, had an unexpected turnout into a business. Since 2003 I was compiling car data in Excel for personal research, then in 2011 posted it on website, and after 1 year I realized that there are people willing to pay $ for such data.
So, I tried do do the same with HDB Database, for the first time published it on website, a SAMPLE Excel file with one town only… to test the market and see if anyone is interested and how can be used such directory of HDB blocks, to continue this megalithic work and sell it for money. But first, need to know what data people need, to not spend unnecessary time on unneeded data, standardize the table format for all towns and clean up the mess.

I was facing with LAZY people and lack of feedback, as happened in case of Car Database too, where took one year to figure out how to make a database appealing for customers to do the 1st sale, for one year.
People praised my initiative, many students wanted the HDB database for personal research, counting blocks, etc, flat buyers wanted the database to know lease year, etc. Sorry, but a 400-hour project is NOT something to do for free to help students and flat buyers.
I also met non-serious customers (see the comments at bottom of page), in the top of list is this this customer asking me if I am selling database but not answering my questions (it’s also my fault for not saying “I am selling the SERVICE of compiling a database“, not a ready-made database).

If BUYERS do not tell me exactly what data they want to BUY, how I am supposed to know what data to compile and SELL ????

I made 2 polls. As you can see, people voted to WAIT for a customer then do the megalithic work, however I never succeeded to make a DEAL in this way.
Seems that I need to complete the database in advance, to be ready for sale when the next customer are coming, taking the risk that customers may be looking for SOMETHING ELSE than what I am doing.

HDB Database

After 4 years of indecision, I resumed working in June 2014

If in 2009-2011 I was adding all possible data for one estate then move to next estate, NOW I am planning to complete in stages: finalize block numbers (taken from map), then start adding street addresses and then years (taken from HDB Resale flat prices), only after finalizing these, start adding number of units (highest time-consuming part of database), and so on.

– Due of limited amount of time available for voluntary jobs, I compiled remaining 60% of Singapore as block numbers only. Other towns remain as done in 2009-2011, never updated.
– Visually enhanced the table using vertical colored columns (a style used for all my Excel works since 2010).
– Deleted the land parcel areas and housing density calculation (I believe that nobody will be interested in this), reorganized the summary table by Public and Private housing (instead of condos mixed with HDB if they are on same perimeter of streets).
– Few additional changes…

Total: 9800 residential blocks, including about ~500 demolished blocks, excluding MSCP, pavilions, markets and other non-residential buildings.

I posted the incomplete database FOR SALE in Store, inviting people to tell me their requirements, negotiate a price, buy existing database for $100, then I will do the remaining part of job. Some wanna-be customers are so LAZY even to tell me what profession they are and what data they need about each block!


What I should do?
Quit my job, neglect my family, etc… dedicate 400 hours to build the HDB database in advance, and publish it for sale for $4000 waiting for a customer which may NEVER come.
Wait for a company willing to hire me to build the HDB database for $4000.
No company will pay more than $1000, spending 400 hours to earn $2.5 per hour does NOT worth. Enjoy my life and stop wasting time building such a HDB Database.
Such HDB Database would be useless if is given for sale to companies and does not allow free consultation for normal people.
Please Specify:

Poll Maker

How much do you pay and what would you like to get?
$200 for database with block numbers and street address only (100 work hours done).

$400 for database with block numbers, street address and building year (+50 work hours needed).

$600 for database with block numbers, street address and total number of units (+100 work hours needed).

$1000 for database with block numbers, street address, building year, number of units breakdown by flat type, number of floors and upgrading programmes (+200 work hours needed).

I want it FREE… because I am an IDIOT having NO RESPECT for hardworking people!!! (if this choice wins the poll then I will consider HDB database unprofitable and abandon it).

Please Specify:

Quiz Maker

November 2014

– Took one-week break from my other projects, updated all towns (block numbers and BTO names), added all under construction HDBs launched up to 2013 . Number of units and upgrading programmes remain NOT updated since 2009-2011.
– Added old HDB blocks demolished before 2000, corrected old estate names (using, historical maps released in September 2014), previously I was using Google Maps, which until 2011 was still showing buildings demolished after 2000 together with new buildings.
– New column: Building type tag (Residential / Carpark / Pavilion / Other). Previously MSCPs and Pavilions were indicated in BLOCK column together with block number. (idea came after a student asked me how many carparks and residential blocks are currently in Singapore – this column will allow easy count).
– New column: BTO/precint names. Previously was a header row above the list of blocks in the BTO/precint.
– Reorganized the list, instead of sorting by geographical location and divide each town in precints, it now sorted by phases of construction (see screenshot). For example: Sengkang: instead of 50+ separate precints and BTOs, now there is a continuous list of all blocks. Toa Payoh: instead of a list from blk 1 to blk 260 mixed old and new blocks, I sorted it as Phase 1 (1966-1976) blk 1-235, Phase II (1986-1989) blk 236-360, and Redevelopment phase (1993-present) with BTO and SERS blocks.
– Then, instead of a summary of precints in each town sheet and another summary of towns, there is single summary sheet of towns and phases of construction. Moreover I can combine all 27 towns in a single sheet, to allow nationwide block filter.

Free SAMPLES (these samples were posted at top of page until June 2015 when new version was ready)
HDB Database 2011 – original version as I done it in 2009-2010 for my research.
HDB Database 2014 DETAILED – coloured, visually enhanced, table no longer divided by precints, town summary removed, proposed to breakdown units by flat type – few hundreds hours are needed to complete database in this format.
HDB Database 2014 LITE – street, block, lease year = fewer data fields = only 100 hours are needed to reach 100% completion…
Breakdown by flat type is done only for Jurong West and Holland for purpose of showing in the SAMPLE, for the rest of towns will be done after getting 50% of payment.

HDB Database

December 2014

– Got a week of free time… COMPLETED street address and Lease year for all remaining blocks.

Total number of HDB buildings in database: 13210 (as December 2014)
Number of residential blocks: 10038 + 1198 demolished.
Number of carparks: 941 + 3 demolished.
Number of pavilions: 592 + 2 demolished.
Number of other buildings: 359 + 77 demolished.
Note: some 2-storey shophouses may be tagged incorrectly as residential.

March to May 2015

– I am BUSY expanding Car Database which generate far more sales than HDB Database. Further work at HDB database can be done starting from June 2015.

Sales started!

First customer! On 3 May 2015, a real estate agent doing flyer distribution, wanted to view the number of units per all blocks at once. Too bad he purchased Yishun only. I started the job of adding number of units for Yishun, and next day I finished and we made the deal.
Anyone else wants number of units in ONE town? Will be ready in 2 days (or immediately in case of pre-1980 towns).

– Updated all towns, added BTOs launched in 2014 (about 200 buildings,block numbers and street address).
– Added early HUDC (about 100 buildings, although their place is NOT in HDB Database as they were never managed by HDB)
– Re-re-rewrote the page, added the BUY NOW button directly on page instead of telling potential customers “to buy from Store“, also added individual towns with their price, not just “whole Singapore”.

5 new customers contacted me in 20 May – 5 June. Don’t know if is a coincidence, or displaying the prices directly on page, per whole Singapore and per town, encouraged website visitors to contact me. There were 2 mini-customers, one wanted a list post-2000 blocks with 3-room flats. I sold him the list for ONLY $20.
But someone wants number of units in whole Singapore… and deadline set on mid-June!

– I hardly find 100 hours to add number of units in every block. Fortunately one of my school-age friends, was willing to help me during the school vacation of June 2015.
– Also added postal codes (customer request), sourced from HDB Centralized Map (an easy job that took me only 20 hours to complete).
– While adding postal codes, I added also lease day and month beside year, but since no customer ever requested this info, I stopped after 20% and remaining 80% I will do later if is needed.
– Added 2 more columns: Building year (if different than lease year) and Demolition year. Now the upgrading programme column show ONLY the info from HDB upgrading programmes, previously it was saying for example “SERS 2010, demolished 2016” and for rental blocks it said “demolished 2016” which isn’t an upgrading programme.
Total: 13699 buildings.

23 July 2015:
– New release, requested by a customer. Total: 13773 buildings.

October 2015:
– Added few missing blocks. Total: 13794 buildings.

May 2016:
– Added a column Building era, to quickly filter blocks built after 1998 and 2005, because last few months I done few sales to people who wanted a list of recently built blocks.
– Added BTO launch date / SERS announcement date in Block name column (personal idea)
– Added construction code and unit number ranges for blocks which HDB provided site plans in Sale of Balance Flats (requested by a customer who never replied after offering him to add this info free of charge, thinking that other customers would be interested), by this way I added about 50 more buildings, Electrical Sub Stations from under construction BTOs which were missing on
– Filled up number of units and lease date for blocks recently completed or reached MOP.
– Being tired of waiting for update I decided to BTOs launched in 2015 and first half of 2016 using HDB brochures.
– Total building count: to be announced after May 2016 BTO launch

TO-DO list:
– Improve lease date with day and month beside year, job started in June 2015 and put ON HOLD because nobody was interested in this particular info.
– Count floors of remaining blocks as well as blocks done in 2009 by estimating from shadow length (most BORING job! Would take me hundreds hours!)

Dec 02

About me – introduction

I made this website to show my works from all fields I am involved in, share knowledge and educational material, and promote my services. I have a variety of hobbies, architecture, real estate and cars. Also playing games that involve buildings. A mix of works done from personal interest / hobby and works requested by specific customers.

Feel free to contact me if you have any enquiry about AutoCAD design, architecture, real estate, research and making databases, or any other field covered by articles of this website.

All the articles, drawings, 3D models, Word and Excel databases shown on website, are the result of ONE-person work. Respect my copyright! Except the photographs, which are linked to the original source or the source is indicated.

Portfolio of works and services offered

While most people spend their free time playing games or chatting with friends, myself I developed many creative / artistic hobbies, since childhood I was playing in AutoCAD (3D modelling), Word and Excel, etc. They remain forever and  can be shown on website. Even if some works have no real use (playing games isn’t an useless activity too?).

Most of pre-2012 works can be called pure hobbies, done from personal interest rather for a specific customer. Since 2012 I concentrate on working for people and abandoned most of non-paid works. Please leave comments, constructive critics appreciated more than praises.

Housing design – the Virtual City

Apartment DesignI started self-studying architecture in 2008 and I made “Teoalida’s Virtual City” with over 20 apartment block concepts designed for high-density, dozens of apartment layouts from 30 sqm 2-room studio to 150 sqm 5-room and even 200+ sqm penthouses, based on an average 25-35 square meters per capita and 100 sqm average apartment size.

Although designed primarily for artistic purpose, they are fully livable homes and can be built.


House DesignStarting from 2010, I completed the Virtual City with landed houses too, detached, semi-detached, terraced and cluster houses (landed condominiums), small and large house plans plus 3D models, currently ranging from 50 sqm 2-bedroom to over 300 sqm and 6 bedrooms, inspired from different parts of world.

(virtual city – because I am not a developer, I don’t have capital to build them).

Housing design – architectural services

House DesignThe “Virtual City” 3D artistic hobby, have impressed regular people but also architects, and turned into business since 2012.

My experience was originally limited to making efficient floor plans and 3D models, but since 2013 I learned to make “construction drawings” by laws, fully-dimensioned floor plans, elevations, sections, as required for building permit.

I am NOT architect (licensed) so I offer just the drawings, finding an architect to get the drawings approved is your job. I am looking for licensed architects around the world for collaboration, to help my customers getting their projects approved, and also you can outsource to me the drawing part of architecture service for your customers.

Palace design in AutoCAD

Palace DesignProbably the most beautiful piece of art that I ever made in AutoCAD, this 3D model is a virtual reconstruction of a REAL, abandoned building, which today was left in ruins.

Originally designed in 2006, I improved it in 2009 and 2014 to show you my abilities of 3D modelling in AutoCAD and geometry design.



Furniture & interior design

Interior DesignIf I design buildings why I would not design 3D models of furniture and interior design too?

I do not have experience in interior design as high like the experience in architecture design, but… feel free to contact me and help me training!



Car design

Car DesignOne of my older passions was for automobiles, since 2000 I designed side views of few real cars in Paint, also my own car models, in Paint and later in 3D in AutoCAD.

“Teoalida’s Cars” are not very modern or sport cars, but they are designed with as many details is possible, and rendered with all photo-realistic effects available in AutoCAD, to showcase my skills of 3D modelling.

I no longer design cars. Last car I designed was in 2007 (photo).

Car database

Car DatabaseDue of my passion for automobiles and obsession for doing research, tables and statistics, since 2003 I made a car encyclopedia, several lists in .DOC format and tables in .XLS format which allows you to sort and filter car models. This include a table with 15000+ car models, detailed with 40+ colums of technical data, which required over 1000 hours of work!

A variety of companies are looking for vehicle database are buying my Excel tables, turning my hobby into a business but only after extensive transformation to make my databases suitable for the unexpected audience.

Word books & Excel databases – data mining services

HDB DatabaseI love doing data mining and analysis, here are examples of my works:

– The Geography works, country area and population, major cities, etc, made in 1998-2005 before connecting to internet and discovering Wikipedia.

– The Music Database with song ratings according my preferences, one of the most USELESS things that I ever made, started in 2005.

– The Singapore HDB Database, table of buildings in Singapore, started in 2009 as personal interest and put ON HOLD because the potential of turning into a business is under question (too much effort vs low sales potential), resumed working in 2014 and finalized in 2015.

– The Hong Kong Housing Database, table with 1000+ public and private housing estates, made in 2011 for an insurance company (my first large project done at a customer request and not as personal interest/hobby).

– The Skyscrapers Database, started in 2015.

– And other 40 databases! What will be the next database to do?

Mapping design

Map DesignAs related with architecture and urban explorer passion, I love to design maps too!

Between 2004 and 2007 I designed artistic maps for my city and nearby towns, vectorial drawings in AutoCAD then colored in Paint, but this turned in a high-effort job with no much usage and generating too little income.

In 2009-2010 I also made a very basic map of Singapore in AutoCAD.


Other types of graphic design in AutoCAD

Graphic DesignOther projects that I had made during my life as freelance graphic designer and CAD draughtsman, that does not fall into above categories. Including paper-to-CAD redrafting services!

Feel free to hire me for any CAD-related work, technical, mechanical design, 2D design, 3D design, etc, but I have most experience (and most customers) for architectural design (because my website promote it)


Housing around the World, real estate research, educational articles

WorldI love exploring the world to study architecture, housing and living conditions, and I have published here the research results and country reviews. This hobby is usually NOT money-making.

Originally (2009) a page with general info about 3 countries, plus a page dedicated for Singapore HDB history, photos, statistics and floor plans, because it was my main source of inspiration for “Teoalida’s Virtual City” so I studied it extensively. One year later I made a similar study for Hong Kong, to design apartments inspired from it too.

The research expanded to 15 pages for Housing in Singapore, 2 pages for Housing in Hong Kong, plus 11 pages with general info about various countries/regions. See also The 10 Greatest Cities in the World!

Gaming – The Sims housing

The Sims 2 planned citiesThe favorite game for most architecture students!

Before starting designing buildings in AutoCAD in 2008, I practiced my urban planning ability even in The Sims 2 where in 2007-2008 I planned nice-looking big cities with apartment blocks (although non-functional), towers and houses, on Isla Segundo, Pleasant View, and Starling Springs (photo).

I keep playing the game and I also build functional homes, efficient or beautiful houses and apartments, and I play the game in normal way, life simulation in them. I offer over 40 houses for FREE download for The Sims 2 and 3.

Gaming databases

The Sims 2 house designGames are the LEAST important part of my life, I am playing max 5% of time sit at computer in average. I show you my Word / Excel works related with games… because I love these software to make databases, statistics, charts, and comparison about almost everything encountered in my life, including about games! For example measuring speed of each car and put the data in a spreadsheet and chart.
Age of Empires, one of the most-played games by me, played until 2005, but not favorite anymore.
Beetle Crazy Cup, shit racing game that can be played with 2 players at same computer.
Caesar 3 citiesCaesar 3, the best city-building game, played in 2005-2007 and 2011.
Grand Theft Auto Vice City and San Andreas, played in 2005-2006.
Need for Speed Porsche 2000, Hot Pursuit 2, Underground, played in 2003-2007.
The Sims 2 & 3, my favorite game, played in 2005-2008 and since 2012 onwards. I also played and liked Bridge Builder / Bridge Construction Set, Railroad Tycoon 2 & 3, Quake 2 & 3, Worms, etc.
Too old games?
From when I got internet connection I found that the world have much more games that I though, no reason to waste time with them, so decided to not try new games.
If I do not have anything to work or I get bored by working in AutoCAD, I prefer to play creatively in same AutoCAD, explore the World in Google Earth, learn new things from Wikipedia…
Also, I am mature and often busy by having many responsibilities. I rarely play games, and if I do, I play the same old games which I have from many years ago.

Web design

I can NOT say that I am a web expert, but I made my website myself without any professional help!

I have high SEO knowledge that helped my website to be on 1st page of Google for dozens of keywords and raising traffic from 100 visitors per day in January 2012 to 800 visitors per day in 2014.

I do not know PHP yet so I cannot make complex websites on custom-made platforms. In terms of coding and programming, my knowledge is limited to HTML and CSS. 90% of people do not even know these, so feel free to contact me for any help related to website building, promotion, optimization, etc.

Frequently asked FUNNY questions

Where is your office located? Can I pay you a visit?

I offer services ONLINE to people from all over the world, as typical freelancers do. I do not have any office and I do not meet customers. Even if you live just few kilometers away from me, I prefer to not meet in real life unless is absolutely necessary. If you need to hire someone to work at your office, or travel somewhere, I am NOT the right person for you.

What is all this mix of stuff on same website?
Are you designer, researcher, database provider, gamer, or…?

I am ALL OF THEM! This is PERSONAL website and my life is very diverse!

What is your profession / primary job?

I do not have any profession and I never had a full-time job, all my income is from part-time works and sales of my works.

For few years I promoted the AutoCAD & architectural design services, which in 2012 was generating 50% of my income, but became unhappy of this job because I was getting many non-serious customers mostly from third-world countries who pay little or nothing. As 2015 AutoCAD-related services generated only 10% of my income, due of rising other hobbies, such as research and making databases which turned into main source of income. A database once completed can also be sold to multiple people. I may migrate to IT industry in the future.

Not every day is money-productive. I also do voluntary work, but ONLY if is in benefit of many people and will improve website traffic (example: writing about real estate). If you solicit me to do a project just for YOU, you should PAY me!

I love working online, while doing work for someone, I can do customer service job and sell other work to someone else. I have a diverse life and this is nicer than having a full-time job and do only one thing 8 hours every day. This allow me to chat with website visitors and offer a little free consultation without disturbing my “job”.

Are you a company who offer services or this website is made as hobby?

LOL… only companies can offer services? Being an 1-person business there is no point to register as company. Most of what you see on website are hobbies, but if you define hobby = non-profit, my hobbies show my abilities and help me to get customers paying for various projects, so should be called business website. Am I right?

Currently I may not fully use the business potential of my hobbies. Suggestions for making money are welcome!

How much does this website cost?

$10 per year, the domain name.
$60 per year with 50% off, shared hosting (2012-2015).
$130 per year, the VPS from Hosting24 (since March 2015).
$200 per year, the chat software from Zopim.

Note: I started originally in 2009 with a FREE website

What do you do for a living?
How do you earn money from website? I do not see any ads!

I am not sure what is the CORRECT answer… because first, a website is not mandatory to be money-making, then you can see on website examples of what I am doing every day, but these things are not really “done for a living”, some works are non-profit hobbies, some works are paid by customers, others works are done to sell them to anyone instead of done for one specific customer. YES I earn money from website, but I do NOT live with this money. My family give me free food (probably will do even if I will be a millionaire from my own business), so theoretically I do not need money to survive, but I want to work for money to start my own family!

I put NO effort in promoting it and get customers until 2012, but after that, the revenues are rising every year. Also, I do not put AdSense because few people click it and the earnings will be insignificant compared with earnings from offering services.
(added in 2013 after this guy asked funny-weird-stupid questions)

Why do you made this website?

What a question… instead of asking why I made it, you should say THANK YOU for making it, as I offer free educational materials.

I started in April 2009, under URL, to have an online portfolio of my hobby works, primarily 3D modelling in AutoCAD (note: some works are made at customer request so may be not called hobbies). I intended to send links to companies and potential customers, for possible collaboration, but I did this only in 2009-2010 less than 10 times, without much success. Currently I get customers primarily along people coming from Google.
Over time, I added more content and the website evolved from a portfolio of my works into a BIG educational resource in real estate and architecture fields, and most of visitors are not interested in the person behind it and its services.
For the full story, read About my life page, I hope it answer you, if not, contact me and suggest how to rewrite the page.

If you are from Singapore, asking why I made this “website about HDB”, you may be surprised but I have NOT made it for Singapore. But if during my architecture study, I done research on Singapore housing, shall keep the research only for me instead of sharing it online? Some people may suggest to remove the hobby pages and concentrate on housing… but what, the study of Singapore housing isn’t HOBBY too? More likely I should remove / move elsewhere the Singapore section because it is slightly off from the original intended purpose of my website and it do not generate revenue while my other hobbies are!

The reason for which I keep all them on same website, is that the non-profit Singapore section generate 60% of total website traffic and 80% of Likes and Tweets, thus helping entire website to maintain a high ranking in Google searches.

I am proud when I do myself so please do not send me any webdesign offers! I enjoy writing and coding the website myself, only contribute with ideas from random visitors. Although 90% of people praise my website, but the <10% professional webdesigners may consider it poorly-looking.

Please DON’T send me Webdesign & SEO promotional emails. You are welcome to send me ideas and suggestions for website, I am happy to do them myself, I DON’T want to pay a SEO company to manage my website.

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