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Jun 30

Caesar 3

Caesar III CoverCaesar III is one of my favorite games. I got the demo version in 2000 and I loved it, but unfortunately I could not get the full version until 2005. I played it a lot in 2005-2006, then in 2008, and a little since October 2011, the moment in which I launched this fan page. But in 2012 the business forced me to quit games.

I played all career scenarios, but what I like most is the free scenarios (city construction kit), where I tried to built the largest city possible on each map. I heard about other city-building games such as Pharaoh and Zeus only in 2007, too late to enjoy them. Anyway, Caesar 3 is the BEST game.

Check this useful Caesar III .XLS table made by me in Excel, containing house evolution, empire locations, best city layout plans and more.
Do you want to download any .sav file? Contact me and I will send you.

Biggest Caesar3 cities – Maps from City Construction Kit

September 2005
Population 10100
Typical 2005 design, inefficient infrastructure, excessive intersections made to use every corner of map, but this worsened walkers and required a lot more buildings.
Remade in October 2011
Population 16300
Total new design, farmland and sea coast optimized, road infrastructure reduced at minimum possible, roads at 6 squares apart and grouped houses up to 3 squares beyond roads… 60% more population.
Made in 2005, improved in 2009
Population 24300
Remade in may 2012
Population 43600.
Widespread famine, as the farmland is insufficient, and fires are frequent.
January 2008
Population 24000.
Second attempt made in January 2008
Population 25800
Third attempt made in October 2008
Population 30000+
Improved in 2011
Population 35500
Some houses are non-grouped so further improvement is possible.
Made in 2006.
Population 12800.
Pretty good design for its time, but too many elite buildings, academies and colloseums eats precious land.
Remade using new skills in October 2011.
Population 19900
Farmland and housing land optimized.

Rio de JaneiroRio de Janeiro (map downloaded from
Made in November 2008
Population 32800
Many building stopped working, fires appeared everywhere in the city, no matters how many prefectures I built, in certain areas none got employees.
Made in September 2005
Population 19800

ToletumToletum modified
First attempt in February 2008
Population 21500. Farms could not sustain more population. (removed invasions and the earthquake which smash the precious farmland)
ToletumToletum modified
Second attempt, March 2008
Population 24500.
Farmland usage and road network highly optimized. I wasn’t aware that most fishing wharf were not working, fishing boats can’t navigate due of a piece of land.
ToletumToletum modified
Remade using new skills in May 2012
Population 31500.
Navigation problem solved by serving wharfs from one half of water with shipyard then built wharfs in the other side of water.
Made in 2005
Population ~17000.
Remade in February 2012.
Population 31500.
Again employment problems, pottery problems appeared since population 20000.
Made in 2005
Population ~15000, never finished (did not built up to data limit)
Remade in February 2012
Population 45000
Little pottery problems but everything else is OK.

See my evolution!!

You can notice in my early cities, I misunderstood the principle of the game “make as few intersection is possible” and I made all cities in grid network (I am sure that most beginner players did this mistake), straight roads long as much is possible, even worse, numerous short roads were added at edge of land (sea, mountains), to improve land usage and use every corner of map, rather than improve road network efficiency. Not only roads were grid but also I placed fountains every 4 houses, each fountain had a prefecture and a engineers post on each side (same layout used on Northern provinces with no fire risk = prefectures are not necessary), making the city to look beautiful, but reducing the chances for houses to merge. Residential and community zones were well defined.

I always let the houses as they appeared, merged or non-merged. I played until reached Data Limit of 2000 buildings, resulting at most 20000 people, then quitted and started another.

Since 2008 I use a complex road network, curved, S-shaped roads and loops to cover more land without having intersections.

Since 2009 I started to demolish the houses that does not group and I built new houses elsewhere. The city size is now limited by the amount of farmland and its usage efficiency (distance to granaries).

Starting from 2011 I am trying to maximize merged houses, I build houses in in groups of 4, group by group, see if they merge, I use the space for community buildings, this is why you can see community buildings placed randomly in middle of residential area (example: Valentia).


Is very hard to raise population over 25000. Can’t understand how I put 30000 souls on Londinium in 2008. In february 2012 I found a .sav from someone that put 50000 people on Tarraco, using gatehouses, I decided to try in my classic style (all neighborhoods linked, no gatehouses), but reached only a little over 30000 because because of strange employment problems, many building stopped working due of “No one is living nearby”, even if they were surrounded by houses, fires appeared everywhere in the map, no matters how many prefectures I built, in certain areas none got employees (same problem like on Rio de Janeiro in 2008). I tried on Valencia too and got 45000 people, surprisingly, no employment problems! Did anyone know the cause?

Caesar III gives you messages about population milestones at 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 5000, 10000, 15000, 20000, 25000, then is quiet. The game was NOT designed to sustain cities with over 30000 inhabitants.

Caesar 3 Data limit

What limits the city size is the data limit of 1999 buildings on map. If you are asking for hacks to remove the data limit, I tell you that data limit cannot be removed.

Why do you want to remove the limit? You can win all scenarios without going closer to limit.

What will be the point of game without such data limit? You could build huge cities filling enormous map at an undesirable housing density, you will hate maps with large amounts of water, etc.

I am happy that the data limit exists. My point is to make largest city in terms of population with less than 2000 buildings.

Pottery problem

Large cities get strange pottery problems, workshops produce pottery but warehouses do not receive it. Seems that this is related by population living in houses demanding pottery and capable to evolve above Small casa, I do not get any other explanation why pottery appear again if I cut the houses’ food source.

Pottery problems in cities over 25000 inhabitants can be avoided by not supplying certain parts of city with pottery and keeping at Small Casa, leaving only certain zones supplied with pottery, zones which probably you want to rise to Luxury Palace.

Houses merging in groups of 4

The worst part of Caesar 3 is how the houses combine (or refuse to combine). When a game is started, the map generate a set of merging tiles.
Houses which are on merging tiles group of they are at same level of evolution, if they evolve differently, you can delete and rebuilt them, or just delete their water source, at tent level they have all the chances to group IF they are on merging tiles. If they still not group, means that tiles are not merging tiles, and you cannot do anything! See the screenshots, how I maximized the quantity of grouped houses!

he only way to “force” house merging is to raise them above level 11 (Large Insulae) which require 4 tiles. However houses cannot be kept stable to Large Insulae in an open city, but only on a small loop with no intersections (which can be done with gates), and when it devolve, it splits into four 1-tile Medium Insulae (or lower level) then regroup if are on merging tiles. Since my cities are built up to data limit, a 4-tile Large Insulae risk to devolve into a 1-tile Medium Insulae and lose 75% of population, thus I avoid Large Insulaes in my cities made after 2011.

Biggest Caesar 3 cities – maps designed by me

First Caesar 3 map by Teoalida designed for making highest population possibleI prefer to use Central Provinces. Desert provinces are too prone to fire and fountain coverage is smaller, while Northern Provinces although that have no fire risk and prefectures will be not necessary, they require much more farms to produce same quantity of food.

I do not try to raise houses to villas and palaces, as they have less population than large insulae and is hard to keep them stable. They are good only to raise prosperity rating and make money from taxes.

First city

After I played all original maps, reaching at most 25000 people, in november 2005 I wanted to design my own map using Caesar 3 Map Editor I planned the city in same grid-network, not only the roads were grid, but also fountains, prefectures and engineers. This severely prevented houses to group, population: only 31500.

Second and third city

In january 2008, I tried again, this time I designed a map with separate clusters, each cluster have own farms and is served by a rectangular loop road and the city have no intersections (except ones under Granary). All houses to be capped at Small Casa to avoid the need of industry, warehouses and a lot of extra buildings. Population over 40000.

Then I heard that I can control the city traffic using Gatehouses. in march I designed another map with gated residential neighborhoods connected to a central production zone. I also deleted some of the non-grouped houses until I reached a population of over 50000.

Second Caesar 3 map by Teoalida Third Caesar 3 map by Teoalida

What limits the population is the fucking houses that refuses to group. The single way to force houses to group is to upgrade them to Large Insulae. For this, I need to build industry and have pottery, furniture and oil.

Failed attempt to break the population recordFourth city – FAIL

OK, in 2009 I tried to design another map, each residential cluster have 6 fountains and one reservoir serve 2 clusters, 4 clusters are served by a central production zone. Residential clusters are 39×14 and can have a max population 4452 at Large Insulae. I made several tests to equalize production with consumption and see how big should be the industrial zone.

Final test, I succeeded to stabilize population at about 17500, then I built second zone of city, I could not reach 35000 because I got same fucking problems with pottery supply, causing most of houses to fell at Small Casa and population stopped growing above 28000-29000.

I halted wheat production, causing most of city houses to downgrade to Large Tent and population reduced to under 20000, this resumed production of pottery, then I resumed wheat production, causing the city population to boost at 31600 but soon they ran out of pottery and felt back to ~26000. See screenshot at the population peak!

Suggestion to achieve high population: don’t build industry, use only Small Casas.

Greatest Caesar III map by Teoalida, population record 118848Fifth city

Since 2009 I planned to break the record, using Small Casa but a enormous map where I would have space to delete all single houses and keep only grouped houses. I spent dozens of hours for testing walkers path distance and the best road layout. I estimated that I can reach a population of at least 110.000. Due of lack of time for games, I did not made the final city until february 2012. Sorry for delay.

I used a northern province to avoid need of prefectures, I checked Rome supplies wheat (a normal city should be made with farms, but this time I just wanted highest possible population).
I divided the map in 8 road loops each one surrounding two reservoirs, 8 fountains per reservoir.
Due of building data limit, 6½ loops are built. 13 reservoirs, 104 fountains, and unemployment ratio 95%. Probably can be improved but only slightly.

Gods were turned off and money cheat was used (in c3_model.txt I set a -$10000 negative price for a building.

To get as many houses grouped is possible, I built houses one by one, starting from corners of area covered by each fountain, towards the fountain. I waited people to occupy their tents and deleted all houses that refused to group. I kept entire city to Tent level until I reached about 100 buildings left until Data limit. Only at this stage, I built the reservoir and the public buildings to raise the tents to Small Casa.

Took about 10 hours to build the city, 300 in-game years passed. Max population achieved: 118848 !!

Tiny Caesar 3 map by Teoalida for highest population

Biggest & best cities on each map size

Also, I tried to overcrowd the tiny map (40×40 squares) with the largest population possible. Final population 10800. The reason for which some houses are not Small Casa is the desirability. Made probably in 2009.




Optimal cities in Caesar III – maps designed by Teoalida

How much food is required for X population?

My tests made with cities with 10000-15000 population housed in Large Insulae revealed that for 10000 people is necessary ~50 wheat farms (central provinces) or ~65 wheat farms (northern provinces), 8 pottery workshops, 8 furniture workshops, 5 oil workshops, also one raw material per each workshop.

Note that larger is the city, lower is the food efficiency. In case the nearest granary is full, cart pushers go to a further distant granary and until they reach it, it may get filled by others.

I will publish more precise results, completed with screenshots, when I will succeed to stabilize the houses!

Attempt to build a perfect city

I am working for a stable city with all population in Large Insulae on a medium map, 20000+ people. Update: I finalized the city but is barely stable and don’t know why.

In March I tried a smaller city with 10000 people. Longer loops having gatehouses at both ends. 8 market per loop. But still unhappy by the results.
I realized that making smaller lops and building more markets increase house stability. Then no time for games.

Caesar 3 Perfect City designed by TeoalidaThe Perfect City for 6000 people

In May 2012 I got a great idea to make a windmill-shaped city rather than symmetric city, on a tiny map. In 2 corners I designed 2 loops each containing 36 Large Insulaes, in the other 2 corners I placed the farms. Surprisingly, the space remained in center of map fits perfectly 2 granaries and 6 warehouses. There are no houses in the production area, all labour is served by the houses at 2 squares apart roads Target population: 6048 people.

Results: for 6000 people you need 34 wheat farms (central provinces) / 40 wheat farms (northern provinces), 4 workshops of each type (pottery, furniture and oil). But the oil will be in slight overproduction. Trading prevent warehouses to get filled.

Central province: Perfect file, year 60.sav file, year 200.sav file. First final test: I built one loop in first year then the second loop I built trough year 10 to 50 to reduce population age fluctuation. In the year 55-60 the city reached peak population, a little over 6000 but not 6048. Over next 140 years, the city lost 10% of population even if all houses supposed to be full.

Northern province: Perfect file, year 65.sav file, year 200.sav file. I tested again, now on northern, slightly different layout. one extra market per block, for perfect housing stability. I built 18 houses in the first 2 years and the rest of 54 houses built from year 10 to year 64, this caused uniform age pyramid. The city lost 13% of population over next 135 years.

Refer at Caesar III .XLS file for the city plan. You can use it for testing purposes, for example delete all wheat farms and built vegetables farms.

Highest taxes level?

In a city where everything is good (enough food for all, no unemployment, all citizens praise the city), I succeeded to raise taxes to 18%. City sentiment was “People are annoyed / upset with you”, I constantly got messages “People disgrountled”, but nothing worse, no theft or riot unless unemployment reached to 5%. Due of fluctiations in population age, I had to constantly build and demolish academies (for 100 denarii you get 30 jobs) to reduce unemployment and prevent worker shortage. High taxes prevented immigration, but birth rate kept city population stable.

Emigration starts when unemployment is over 20% but it can be prevented by keeping taxes low. Wages should be Rome +5.

Caesar 3 population age and employment

People aged 0-15 are school age, 15-20 academy age, 20-50 working-class and 50-100 retirers.

When a new city is built, most of immigrants are working-class people, aged up to 55 years, they will make babies each new year, but if all housing is full, the babies will disappear. Cities such as the ones above, with all population in Small Casas and minimal of public buildings, reach an unemployment ratio of 80%. Even with this huge unemployment, after about 30-40 years they will ran out of workers, because of aging population (photo 1). Houses will devolve causing the city to lose even more workers, then a new group of working-class people will come and restore the city, but the unemployment will still fluctuate from 0% to 50% in the next 50 years. About 200-400 years are required to stabilize the age (photo 2).

A stable and healthy city will have after hundred years same number of people between 0-60 years and a constant decrease of people 60-100 years. Average life span is 80 years but only 3/8 will be workers, that’s TOO BAD. Sierra shall make the game with retirement age at 60 years old, and obviously, more workers required for each building.

Solution: if you are going to build a city that should remain stable for hundred years, simply do not built all at once, built it over a period of 40 years. If the city is already build, demolish a reservoir to cause houses devolve then built it back, working-age immigrants will come. Save game before, sometimes when houses devolve you will lose mostly working-age people rather than all-ages people.

Caesar 3 aging Caesar 3 population age

Another strange phenomenon is that the city is losing population over time. I had played two perfectly stable cities of 3000-5000 people for 1000 years and they lost 10-20% of population in this way, even if every house was supposed to be full. And they still consume same quantity of food like that when it was brand new.

Tips & Tricks + Useful info asked by visitors of my website

You can have an one-road city with actor colony at one end and theater at other end, all houses get entertainment access!

Walker control
You can use gatehouses to control random walkers, they do not pass through gatehouses. Only point-to-point walkers (immigrants, cart pushers, prefects going to extinguish a fire, entertainment people going from training center to venue) pass through gatehouses.

What is the purpose of oracles?
In my early years I did not understood their purpose, as they do not send walkers, so I placed a shitload of temples.
A oracle please 5 gods for 500 people, a small temple please one good for 750 people, a large temple please one god for 1500 people. So, if you have 1500 people in the city, to please all gods you need 3 oracles or 10 small temples (2 x 5 gods).
However a city with only oracles do not work. Only temples provide house access to religion.

Connecting roads with gardens
I downloaded some cities and noticed some roads being broken by 1 tile of garden. My experiments did not revealed the purpose, the gardens are threaten as roads by all walkers. Does anyone know the purpose?

Caesar 3 map sizes
Tiny map – 40×40
Small map – 60×60
Medium map – 80×80
Large map – 100×100
Huge map – 120×120
Enormous map – 160×160

Have questions? Want more tricks? Just ask me!


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  1. Terisa Drorbaugh

    Mensaje muy guay, muy informativo y escrito profesionalmente .. Good Job

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  3. OMid

    Hi there
    As I play the game, after 40-50 years, the population begins to decrease every year by 100, even though there’s no housing troubles. It’s a real pain as I should start demolishing some buildings to compensate for it. I haven’t paid close attention that whether population really decreases, or workforce drops by 100 every year.
    I’d be thankful if you helped me. What is the reason?
    Maybe it’s worth noting that city’s population exceeds 15000.

    1. Teoalida

      Finally I get a human comment on this 3-year old page! The above spammers sucks.
      Do you build entire city at once then wait 40 years? Is normal to lose workforce due of aging, you should build the city during 40 years. Look in population advisor, age pyramid.
      Have you read this: Northern province: Perfect file, year 65.sav file, year 200.sav file. I tested again, now on northern, slightly different layout. one extra market per block, for perfect housing stability. I built 18 houses in the first 2 years and the rest of 54 houses built from year 10 to year 64, this caused uniform age pyramid. The city lost 13% of population over next 135 years.

      1. OMid

        Well, I guess I’m just as old-fashioned as you are. To be honest, other games don’t satisfy me as the golden oldies do :))

        Aha, got it. So, it’s mostly about the age, huh? I build the city in two 20 year periods, and by the 40th year, every year that passes, like a 100 of em just disappear from the workforce and I get alarmed for needing more employees.
        So there’s no way to make it right, then? I must try and do away with it in less than 40 years?
        Do you think it is possible if we removed all the housing, and make new houses, so the younger generation would come in? 😕

        I have no problem with housing stability since I use double-square blocks.

        Thanks buddy

        1. Teoalida

          Can I know what is your point of playing? You want to win some of game scenarios? They have few dozens years only. You want to set population record? You want to make perfect city stable for a millennium?
          Look in Population advisor, if you have many people around 50 years old and few around 20 years old, no wonder why you lose workers each year.
          Try deleting few hospitals and libraries as they eat a lot of workers, and optimize prefectures and engineer posts. Note that 5% unemployment is better than worker shortage, and some of my population record cities using Small Casas and no industry reach 80% unemployment ratio. Crime is avoided by setting wages Rome+10, and these wages don’t kill the budget because there are not many workers to pay them.
          PS: indeed I am old fashion in terms of games, but I haven’t played this game since 2012. Hope to get free time soon to improve this page.

          1. OMid

            I made a scenario using city construction kit, very rich in resources and everything, and I’m just trying to reach very very high standards of living, prosperity of 95, the rest: 100 with final intended population of 20000. Trading is fruitful and resources are rich. Starting from 160 AD and planned to run until 250 AD with different requests from the emperor, Local uprisings and Enemy Armies attacking the city every 4 years.
            So, to sum it up, yeah, just to pass some time. Even though I don’t get enough to play, It’s always a pleasure playing this game.
            Thanks for all the advice, buddy, it’s been a delight.

  4. Mona

    Thanks for the info. Still prefer Caesar 3 to Caesar 4. Glad to see there are still people who play and share tips.

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