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Aug 24

Housing in South Korea

I studied Korean housing since 2009 in the same time with other countries, however the most of study has been done during 2012 since Google Street View has been launched in Seoul and Busan. I am still UNDER STUDYING… the page may be updated anytime as my study progress!

What else would you like to see in this page? Leave comments!

Foreigners who have questions about Korea that are not listed on this page, are invited to contact me. I learned more things than what I wrote in this page.

Seoul Skyline

South Korea may be one of the best places to live, being one of the most developed countries in the world, one of the world’s fastest growing economies from 1970s to 1990s, one of the most equilibrated income of the world. South Korea overtook Japan in some ways. I love South Korea more than Japan mostly because of architecture and apartment complexes, as Japanese cities have too many landed houses.

Despite of capitalist government, South Korea share many similarities with the communist North Korea, for example economic isolation and little free trade with rest of world. They use mostly locally-made products and foreign companies cannot get market share there. You rarely see foreign cars driving around. Less than 2% use Google, they use Daum.net and Naver.com instead. Another similarity with communism is the massiveness of apartment blocks, private developers built distinct complexes but with identical buildings arranged in grid all around the city.

I also love extensive Seoul Metro system which extends to outside of Seoul city limits (10 million people) or metropolitan area (24 million people), 314 km of lines built for metro, plus the Korail lines used by metro trains, totalize 755 km of metro network, longest in the world. Then high-speed KTX trains which runs with speed up to 300 km/h, link Busan to the capital in 2 hours. Even if only 2 lines are yet. Incheon International Airport won the best airport award in 2012.

As 2010, 25,008,212 people live in high-rise apartments; 15,941,063 in houses; and 4,974,719 in villas, or smaller apartment buildings (source).

South Korean society emphasizes the family, not the community, and the apartment design reflect that. Korean developers pay attention to offering best living conditions instead of maximizing their own profits. Apartment blocks are usually from 15 to 30 floors and they are not crowded like in other countries. All units come with floor heating and high-tech fittings (details below). People hate the appearance of the apartment complex, but love to live in an apartment unit in that complex.
South Korea is one of the few countries in the world where the tallest building is residential, Samsung Tower Palace G (2004). Second tallest is also residential: Mok-dong Hyperion (2003).
Korean high-rise apartments are one of the biggest in the world, average size 106 sqm in 2005 and growing, according www.earoph.info, landed houses theoretically should be even bigger, but I never found statistics about them.

Apartment complexes that changed the country

MapoTraditional Korean houses are single-storey and have floor heating. 1945 multi-storey buildings were still a rare sight in Seoul. The Korean war (1950-1953) destroyed 20% of housing stock. Most people were living in crowded conditions without sewage and running water.
The first apartment complex was built in 1958 but did not attracted much attention. Mapo apartment complex built from 1961 to 1964 began the revolution. Consisted of 10 six-story buildings and housed 642 families. The flats were 9-15 pyeong (30 to 50 square meters). Very few Koreans were ready to live at height of the 5th and 6th floor. Apart from height, people did not like other features. The early apartment complexes lacked the traditional floor heating and were warmed by radiators. Mapo apartment was demolished in 1991.
The real boom of apartment complex began in the early 1970s. In 1971 the Banpo apartments became the first complex with traditional heated floors rather than Western-style radiators, in the first complexes the the heated floors were only in bedrooms but later the entire living space became heated in this traditional way. This made apartments even more appealing to Koreans.
JamsilJamsil apartments built in 1970s was the first large-scale complex that included schools, parks and commercial centers, 19180 apartments spread on 1.5 sq km. Was completely demolished in 2005 and redeveloped.
The 1980s and 1990s had a construction boom of unprecedented proportions. 80% of the housing stock of Korea was built since 1980.
In 1990, only 22.9 percent of Korean families lived in apartments. By 2005 this share more than doubled, 52.5 percent of families were apartment dwellers. Preference for apartments is growing. In a 1992 poll, 41 percent of respondents said they would choose to live in apartments, in 2000, 77 percent gave the same answer.
In 2005, the average Korean apartment was 32 pyeong, more than double the size of the largest flat in the Mapo complex. Korea have one of the biggest, if not the biggest apartments in the world!
Note: above rows are sourced from Korea Times. Read original article.

My study about Korean housing

Korean public housing history began in 1962. At this moment I do not have experience to distinguish public housing from private housing, all looks similar. Private developers are copy their designs each other, there are several types of “perfect” apartments, copy-pasted from one neighborhood to another. They pays attention to apartment efficiency rather to land usage efficiency or layout diversity or distinctive designs.

Construction ratio was slower than urbanization ratio, making Korea to have one of the most expensive real estate prices in 1980s. In 1991 the government realized that cannot resolve the housing shortage without adequate supply of land, started the Two Million Houses Construction Project, built ratio overtook demand and this kept prices steadily until today. Aimed to 2012 to reach 320 housing units per 1000 people. Source: http://www.housingfinance.org/uploads/Publicationsmanager/8611010705.pdf, nice research about housing construction.

As having a high-tech industry, the country is dominated by high-tech architecture with steel and glass buildings. Korean cities, together with Chinese cities, are most monotonous cities in the world, every city have big apartment complexes with rows of identical buildings without any distinctive features. But this contribute to national equilibrium… and I still love it!

All blocks are narrow and have long apartments, with many rooms as possible on frontal facade. All blocks have the frontal facade oriented to south (or southwest or southeast), with other words, are not arranged with facades front-to-front and back-to-back, but front-to-back. Unlike the western world apartments, Korean apartments have no distinction between day and night areas, the living room and kitchen-dining room are nearly always placed in the center of apartment, while the bedrooms (4 bedrooms in average) are placed in each corner to enhance privacy. Some 4-room segmented blocks have 30 by 10 meters, all four rooms (living room and three bedrooms) are oriented to south facade. On the north facade are located only kitchen, bathrooms, staircase, and lift lobby.

Walls are probably load-bearing, I can guess this by lack of hacked walls in renovating apartments. Rooms are perfectly rectangular with no columns or beams protruding in rooms. Nice!

Apartment sizes were traditionally quoted in pyeong (1 pyong = 3.3 square meters), including walls and balconies, and surprising, for corridor-style blocks it include the common corridor area. Sometimes both floor areas with and without balconies are displayed. Except some recent private developers, all apartment dimensions are divisible by 30 cm, most by 90 cm too, for example 2.7×3.6 m and 3.6×4.5 m bedrooms. This is weird… and is not imperial system, because 1 feet would be 30.48 cm.

Standard floor to floor height is 2.70 meters, of which floor slab is 20 cm and many apartments come with false ceiling, thus the ceiling height is around 2.4 meters. Doors are tall almost reaching the ceiling, not like 2 meters doors in western countries.

Government regulate private developers thus they build apartments in some standard sizes: 18 py / 59 sqm, 25 py / 84 sqm, 33 py / 109 sqm, 40 py / 133 sqm, 50 py / 165 sqm. Until 1998 were some rules for developers to provide 70% of apartments to be under 85 sqm and 30% under 60 sqm (source: http://www.prres.net/proceedings/proceedings1998/Papers/kyung.pdf but this rule is dubious, I see many small complexes built in 1990s with only 100+ sqm apartments). This caused an oversupply of tiny 84 sqm 4-room apartments, so the rule was removed. These compact apartments have 3 bedrooms (small as 6-7 sqm) and a single bathroom, all in 84 sqm of which balconies are about 20 sqm. I guess that they are often owned by couples without kids, so why they need 3 bedrooms? Is a lifestyle in Korea everyone to have 3 bedrooms!!??
The 3-room (and smaller) apartments, the living room have sliding doors to be converted in a 3rd bedroom.

By studying block sizes in satellite photos and Google street view, a very vague estimation about apartment size distribution: 50% 3-bedroom, 30% 4-bedroom, 10% 5-bedroom, less than 10% 2-bedroom.

According forums.eslcafe.com (post from 2003): Average apartment measures 32 pyeong. The average size of an apartment unit in Korea was measured at 31.8 pyeong (104.9 square meters), nearly 6 pyeong larger than the 25.9 pyeong average from 13 years ago, a survey showed yesterday. The average size of apartment units in Seoul came to 34.5 pyeong, larger than the nation’s average by 2.7 pyeong. 11.6 percent of the surveyed apartment units measured less than 20-pyeong, while 37.1 percent were between 20 pyeong and 29 pyeong. Another 30.6 percent were between 30 pyeong and 39 pyeong, while 11.8 percent were between 40 pyeong and 49 pyeong. Finally, 8.8 percent were larger than 50 pyeong.

According www.earoph.info, in 2005 average apartment size was 106.43 sqm and average household size 3.37 persons. However same source says that in 2005 were 12494827 dwelling units, South Korea population being 47,278,951 according Wikipedia, resulting 3.78 persons.
Can someone clarify if this 106.43 sqm is gross floor area, net floor area, include or not the walls and balconies?
I never found statistics about average home size of non-apartment housing.
Many english websites says that Korean apartments are around 30 and 50 sqm, but they are referring at the officetel given for free for english teachers in Korea, NOT to real apartments for Korean families.

In 2003 a programme to improve apartments was launched, building new rooms and enlarging units, but it was implemented in just few cases, read more Apartment Remodeling Policies in Korea.pdf

Every room in Korean apartments have a balcony like this. Pretty stupid, isn’t? especially when the sliding door to balcony leads to a very small balcony window. The reason for which the door is still here is that the floor heating was not installed in balcony.
Korean apartment balcony Korean apartment balcony

Apartment block models

Identify block age by balcony style

All apartments have balconies, originally only for living room, but since 1980s or 1990s balconies are added at every bedroom, living room and kitchen, so about 20% of total apartment area is in balconies. They are minimum 1.5 m wide for living room and 1.2 m wide for bedroom so in case of small apartments, they add 33% to bedroom size.

Early balconies had concrete parapet at bedrooms and with metal railing at living room, sometimes curved, thus enclosing balconies was difficult, balconies were continuous without supporting columns except at end. After 1990s or 2000s balconies have straight metal rail and supporting columns aligned with internal walls to facilitate closure of balconies and extension of rooms. Balconies are provided open, but in max 1 year over 99% get closed with sliding windows, in most cases the rooms are extended to balconies. Few open balconies can be still seen in the old blocks.

As I understood from a visitor of this page, the city authorities control the developments by gross floor area ratio, and the balconies are not counted as gross floor area, so nowadays the developers are building small rooms to fit in gross floor area limit, apartment floor area is indicated without balconies, while the balconies are provided as bonus space, developers offer to residents to extend rooms into balconies for an extra fee. However in 1990s and maybe in 2000s too apartment floor area was indicated with balconies included, thus I do not fully understand how this legal loophole started.

Early complexes are composed only by 5-storey walk-up blocks, with distances between facades of 15-20 meters.
Apartment types:
Staircase-style blocks 12 by 8 meters (2-room ~40 sqm), 16 by 8 meters (3-room ~50 sqm), and 22 by 8 meters (4-room ~70 sqm).

Newer complexes have mostly 15-storey blocks, with minimal distance between facades of 40 meters (biggest in the world), but most blocks are placed further away to provide more space for ground parking, which became not enough during 2000s due to unexpected increase in number of cars. Fortunately, complexes build in 2000s come with underground and multi storey parking, this allowed greater heights like 20- and 30-storey blocks. Walk-up blocks still built in low numbers, now 3-storey only.

Apartment types:
Corridor-style blocks with 6 or more units per floor, 9-13 meters width, most common unit types:
2-room 1-bay (4.5 m long)
3-room 2-bay (6.5 m long)
4-room 2 bay (7-8.5 m long)
4-room 3-bay (10 m long). example

Staircase-style blocks with 2 units per floor, All 11 to 14 meters in width, most common types:
3-bedroom 2-bay, 84 sqm (18-21 m long) example, example 76 sqm
3-bedroom 2 bay, around 105-110 sqm (20-22 m-long) exampleexample 2.
3-bedroom 3-bay, around 105-110 sqm (22-24 m long)
4-bedroom 3 bay, around 140-150 sqm (26-28 m long), example.
4-bedroom 4-bay, around 150-180 sqm (30-32 m long) example.
5-bedroom 4-bay, around 200 sqm (32-36 m long)

Intermediate and out-of range unit types exists too.
Apartment range from 84 sqm to over 200 sqm (including walls and balconies).

There are also bigger apartments, usually only 1 block in the complex, 5/6-bedroom, examples:
Hyundai Apt block 76, 41 m long and 14 m wide block segment with two apartments about 270 sqm, according my measurements in Google Earth (possible floor plan http://blog.daum.net/kyasin77/801)
Lotte Castle Premier Apartment, block 110, 238 sqm, floor plan & interior photos.
Imaechon Cheong-gu, bloc 603 & 614, 48 m long and 13.5 m wide, 69 pyong = 238 sqm, http://blog.daum.net/stylings/519

Some staircase-style blocks are L-shaped with 3 or Y-shaped with 4 apartments per floor.
4-room are dominant, followed by 5-room ones. All 3-room and smallest 4-room have a single bathroom.

Old houses awaiting demolition

Old houses Old houses Ahyeon-dong demolition

Old apartment towns (1970s?)

Karak Si-young Apartment Karak Si-young Apartment
Jamsil Apartment

Newer apartment towns (1990s-2000s)

Mt. Suri panorama 
Bundang-Gu 
 

Brand new apartments, before having all balconies closed

Korean housing is composed by public housing, simple-looking blocks with ground parking (above photos); then some complexes similar with public housing in block shape but featuring underground car parks and wall motifs (did not know if they are semi-public or full private housing); then the luxury apartment complexes (below photos), easy to distinguish due to non-standard block shapes and, in most cases, helipad on the roof.
The rest of city is composed by private low-rise individual apartment buildings mixed with single family homes, I have no idea about the sizes of these, but according numerous Youtube videos made by english teachers in Korea, there are numerous 1-room apartments.

Galleria Palace Acrovista

South Korea have the world’s highest broadband internet access per capita… unfortunately, very little information about Korean housing could be found on internet. Floorplans are hardly to find, floorplans with exact dimensions are nearly impossible to find, so at this moment I can only estimate apartment sizes by measuring blocks from satellite photos. Plenty of floorplans are available, you only need to search the development name in Korean, for example Hyundai apartment 현대 아파트, on Google Image search. blog.naver.com contains numerous articles about apartment development, completed with floorplans.

Cars

Korean automotive industry had the most spectacular growth of the world. The first Korean-built automobile was Hyundai Pony, launched in 1975, and in 2009 Korea became the 5th automotive manufacturer in the world, and the first country in terms of automotive production compared with its population, overtaking Japan. Thanks to increased demand in China. (Source: Wikipedia’s List of countries by automobile production). The explosion of cars causes a lot of parking problems, visible in this funny photo (the snow proof that even the driveway was filled with parked cars). We need multi storey car parks like Singapore!!

Crowded parking in Korea apartment complex

Selection of floor plans and other stuff found during my study

I found numerous floorplans by Google searching 방수:4개 (you can change the number, from 1 to 6 bedrooms).
Also by searching apartment name in Korean (I do not speak korean, but I copy apartment names from Panoramio photos found in Google Earth, or from Wikimapia).

Corridor-style floorplans, from 2-bedroom to 4-bedroom.
Set of 4 apartment types, 3-bedroom to 6-bedroom, floorplans.
Set of 8 apartment types, 74 to 154 sqm, floorplans.
Another 8 apartment types, from 108 to 314 sqm, floorplans, weird entry corridor.
Daewoo Marina Apartments is showing lots of floorplans, 2-bedroom to 5-bedroom.
Lotte Castle Premier Apartments, 9 unit types ranging from 105 to 238 sqm, floor plans.
Samsung Tower Palace, tallest building in Korea, is showing floorplans too.
A Youtube channel containing lots of videos inside apartments alphabds. Sadly, most apartments are unfurnished or furnished for showcase, I wished to see how koreans actually use each room, but found this one, cluttered with… all people’s stuff!
Buyeong e-Green TownMORE SOON!

Buyong E-Green Town Apartment, one of my favorites (probably due to nice shape viewed in Google Earth).
Found its blog page and the plan of apartments. Notice that there are 5 apartment types, 3/4/5-bedroom, most have 4 bedrooms, size range 105-215 sqm, try estimate the average size of apartments! It’s huge anyway!
Again, why does koreans need so much space? There may be couples without children, they really need 3-4 bedrooms!?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AF_5peDRTpA video of apartment evolution in Korea compared with France and other countries. So sad that isn’t in english.
http://blog.daum.net/k1004/15668146 LG apartment 125, 160, 195 sqm
http://blog.daum.net/lglotte4300/557 123-226 sqm
http://blog.daum.net/autokoo/731 Jamsil (10-storey area), built late 1970s, floor plans and plans for reconstruction

Bucheon aerial view

Things that I never understood

Who is from Korea or have some knowledge, please help me for the following 4 mysteries:

What’s up with so many rooms? Korean apartments have 3-4-5 bedrooms unlike other countries where 3-bedroom is dominant.

What’s up with the HUGE balconies? New apartment blocks have balconies big as 20% of total apartment area. Some bedrooms have two balconies, in both sides. Some bedrooms are 2.7 x 3.6 m with additional 2.7 x 1.8 m balcony (50% more!). Apartment owners quickly enclose balconies and join with the room… so why the blocks aren’t provided from start with less balconies and bigger rooms?

What does support these blocks? I see both in photos and floor plans perfect rectangular rooms with NO protruding pillars and NO beams at the ceiling. This is similar with communist blocks with load-bearing walls but Korean block walls are too thin and I do not think that the weight 30-storey blocks can be supported by load-bearing walls. Oh wait… no earthquakes over 4-5 Richter in Korea.

What is the ceiling height? I read on a website 2.7m, but doors are tall to ceiling and photos with people inside shows a lower ceiling. Either that people are tall, either there is false ceiling, or hmm…

4 comments

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  1. Teoalida (the k!ng)

    What a badluck! For the first time I had a chance to talk with a Korean, had a power outage lasting about 1 hour!

    [16:41] Teoalida: and if you can explain me what’s up with the ridiculous big balconies that, after apartments being sold, are quickly closed and joined with the room, would be even better!
    [16:43] Visitor: you know in korea they sell the flat even before the construction begins
    [16:44] Visitor: so the construction company or developer sells the flat the customers pay extra money around 2000 USD
    [16:44] Visitor: and the contract expand the rooms to the balcony and that how they increase the efficiency of the saleable area
    [16:45] Teoalida has left the conversationPOWER OUTAGE
    [16:58] Visitor has left the conversation
    You could continue typing, your messages will land in my email inbox.

    Please contact me if you re-visit my website!
    Or anyone else who can answer my questions!

  2. Sam

    Korean apartments have balconies because balconies aren’t counted in floor area ratio(like hong kong’s bay windows)

    1. Teoalida (the k!ng)

      REALLY? Korea is using floor area ratio to control maximum allowed development? I though that just floor limit and minimum distance between facades, as I can see many blocks are at exactly 40 meters distance. If there is floor area ratio limit I shall see some blocks denser and some sparser. Also do you like having such big balconies vs small rooms? Maybe the laws should be changed.

  3. J

    Some of the walls support the structure while some other walls are there for the floor plan. When a Korean homeowner would want to rennovate their homes, they can remove only the walls that are not supporting walls which work as pillars for the entire building structure.

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